Aerobic Conditioning

Sports Performance     |     Health & Well-being

In order to effectively prescribe cardiovascular exercise for the improvement of performance or health, an exercise professional should understand the underpinning physiology of chronic aerobic adaptations and how to manipulate programming variables to elicit optimal improvements in fitness and performance.

This page contains a number of recommended journal articles intended to help develop greater understanding of aerobic exercise programming considerations. 

Recommended Chapters

DiMenna & Jones (2016) Developing endurance for sports performance. In: Jeffreys, I., & Moody, J. (Eds.). (2016). Strength and Conditioning for Sports Performance. London: Routledge. 

Bliss, A. and Harley, R. (2018) Training aerobic fitness. In Turner, A. and Comfort, P. (Eds.). Advanced Strength and Conditioning: An Evidence-based Approach. London: Routledge. 

Hough, P. (2021) Endurance Training. In Hough, P., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (Eds.). (2021). Advanced personal training: science to practice. Routledge.

Recommended Articles

Burnley, M., & Jones, A. M. (2018). Power–duration relationship: Physiology, fatigue, and the limits of human performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(1), 1-12. 

Further Reading

Barnes, K. R., & Kilding, A. E. (2015). Strategies to improve running economy. Sports Medicine, 45(1), 37-56. 

Billat,L.V. (2001) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-Distance Running. Part I: Aerobic Interval Training Sports Med; 31 (1): 13-31 [full text]

Billat,L.V. (2001) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-Distance Running. Part II: Anaerobic Interval Training Sports Med; 31 (2): 75-90 [full text]

Buchheit, M. (2014). Monitoring training status with HR measures: do all roads lead to Rome?. Frontiers in Physiology, 5, 73. 

Buchheit, M., & Laursen, P. B. (2013). High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part I: Cardiopulmonary Emphasis. Sports Medicine, 43(5), 313-338. 

Buchheit, M., & Laursen, P. B. (2013). High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part II: Anaerobic Energy, Neuromuscular Load and Practical Applications . Sports Medicine, 43(10), 927-954. 

Burnley, M., & Jones, A. M. (2018). Power–duration relationship: Physiology, fatigue, and the limits of human performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(1), 1-12. 

Casado, A., González-Mohíno, F., González-Ravé, J. M., & Foster, C. (2022). Training periodization, methods, intensity distribution, and volume in highly trained and elite distance runners: A systematic review. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 17(6), 820-833. 

Casado, A., Foster, C., Bakken, M., & Tjelta, L. I. (2023). Does Lactate-Guided Threshold Interval Training within a High-Volume Low-Intensity Approach Represent the “Next Step” in the Evolution of Distance Running Training?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(5), 3782. 

Coffey, V. G., & Hawley, J. A. (2017). Concurrent exercise training: do opposites distract? The Journal of physiology, 595(9), 2883-2896. 

Dellal, A., Hill-Haas, S., Lago-Penas, C., & Chamari, K. (2011). Small-sided games in soccer: amateur vs. professional players' physiological responses, physical, and technical activities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(9), 2371-2381. 

Foster, C., Porcari, J. P., Anderson, J., Paulson, M., Smaczny, D., Webber, H., ... & Udermann, B. (2008). The talk test as a marker of exercise training intensity. Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and prevention, 28(1), 24-30. 

Fyfe, J. J., Bishop, D. J., & Stepto, N. K. (2014). Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables. Sports Medicine, 44(6), 743-762.

Gabbett, T. J. (2016). The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(5), 273-280. 

Gastin, P. B. (2001). Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise. Sports Medicine, 31(10), 725-741.

Gibala, M. J., & Hawley, J. A. (2017). Sprinting toward fitness. Cell Metabolism, 25(5), 988-990. 

Gibala, M. J., Little, J. P., Van Essen, M., Wilkin, G. P., Burgomaster, K. A., Safdar, A., ... & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2006). Short‐term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. The Journal of Physiology, 575(3), 901-911.

Gielen, S., Schuler, G., & Adams, V. (2010). Cardiovascular effects of exercise training. Circulation, 122(12), 1221-1238.

Girard, O., Mendez-Villanueva, A., & Bishop, D. (2011). Repeated-sprint ability—Part I. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 673-694.

Bishop, D., Girard, O., & Mendez-Villanueva, A. (2011). Repeated-sprint ability—Part II. Sports Medicine, 41(9), 741-756.

González-Mohíno, F., Santos-Concejero, J., Yustres, I., & González-Ravé, J. M. (2020). The effects of interval and continuous training on the oxygen cost of running in recreational runners: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 50, 283-294.   

Iaia, F., & Bangsbo, J. (2010). Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(s2), 11-23.

Jones, A. M., & Carter, H. (2000). The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine, 29(6), 373-386.

Teaching Resources

STCD01 Cardio Training
Advanced Metabolic Conditioning

Joyner, M.J. and Coyle, E.F. (2008) Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. Journal of Physiology. Vol. 586, 35-44 [full text]

Kenneally, M., Casado, A., Gomez-Ezeiza, J., & Santos-Concejero, J. (2021). Training intensity distribution analysis by race pace vs. physiological approach in world-class middle-and long-distance runners. European Journal of Sport Science, 21(6), 819-826. 

Laursen, P.B. and Jenkins, D.G. (2002) The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training: Optimising Training Programmes and Maximising Performance in Highly Trained Endurance Athletes, Sports Medicine, Vol.32, 53–73.[abstract]

Laursen, P. B. (2010). Training for intense exercise performance: high‐intensity or high‐volume training?. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(s2), 1-10.

Little, T. (2009). Optimizing the use of soccer drills for physiological development. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 31(3), 67-74. doi: 10.1519/SSC.0b013e3181a5910d 

MacInnis, M. J., & Gibala, M. J. (2017). Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity. The Journal of Physiology, 595(9), 2915-2930 

Midgley, A. W., McNaughton, L. R., & Jones, A. M. (2007). Training to enhance the physiological determinants of long-distance running performance: : Can valid recommendations be given to runners and coaches based on current scientific knowledge?  Sports Medicine, 37(10), 857-880.

Milanović, Z., Sporiš, G., & Weston, M. (2015). Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous endurance training for VO 2max improvements: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Sports medicine, 45(10), 1469-1481.  

Mujika, I. (2009) Tapering and peaking for optimal performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics [google books]

Persinger, R., Foster, C., Gibson, M., Fater, D. C., & Porcari, J. P. (2004). Consistency of the talk test for exercise prescription. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 36(9), 1632-1636. [www]

Plowman, S.A., Smtih, D.L. (2010) Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness and performance (3rd ed) Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins [Ch5 metabolic conditioning]

Robergs, R.A. and Landwehr, R. (2002) The surprising history of the “HRmax=220-age” equation.. JEPonline. 5(2):1-10 [full text]

Rønnestad, B. R., & Hansen, J. (2018). A scientific approach to improve physiological capacity of an elite cyclist. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 13(3), 390-393. 

Seiler, S. (2010). What is best practice for training intensity and duration distribution in endurance athletes?. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 5(3), 276-291. 

Seiler, S., & Tønnessen, E. (2009). Intervals, thresholds, and long slow distance: the role of intensity and duration in endurance training. Sportscience, 13

Solli, G. S., Tønnessen, E., & Sandbakk, Ø. (2017). The Training Characteristics of the World’s Most Successful Female Cross-Country Skier. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 1069.

Spencer, M., Bishop D., Dawson, B. and Goodman, C. (2005) Physiological and Metabolic Responses of Repeated-Sprint Activities: Specific to Field-Based Team Sports. Sports Med 35 (12): 1025-1044 [full text]

Stone, N.M., Kilding, A.E. (2009) Aerobic Conditioning for Team Sport Athletes Sports Medicine 39(8) 615-642  

Tabata, I. et al (1997) Metabolic profile of high intensity intermittent exercises. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise 29(3); 390-395 [full text]

Tanaka, H. and Seals, D.R. (2008) Endurance exercise performance in Masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms Journal of Physiology  Vol. 586, No. 1, 55–63 [full text]

Wilson, J. M., Marin, P. J., Rhea, M. R., Wilson, S. M., Loenneke, J. P., & Anderson, J. C. (2012). Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(8), 2293-2307.  

Winter, E. M., Jones, A. M., Davison, R. R., Bromley, P. D., & Mercer, T. H. (Eds.). (2006). Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines: Volume I–Sport Testing: The British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences Guide. Routledge.

Related Links on

Fitness Tests for Aerobic Capacity

Chronic Exercise Induced Cardio-Respiratory Adaptations

High-Intensity Interval Training for Health

Further Links