Aerobic Conditioning

Sports Performance | Health & Well-being

In order to effectively prescribe cardiovascular exercise for the improvement of performance or health, an exercise professional should understand the underpinning physiology of chronic aerobic adaptations and how to manipulate programming variables to elicit optimal improvements in fitness and performance.

This page contains a number of recommended journal articles intended to help develop greater understanding of aerobic exercise programming considerations.

Recommended Chapters

DiMenna & Jones (2016) Developing endurance for sports performance. In: Jeffreys, I., & Moody, J. (Eds.). (2016). Strength and Conditioning for Sports Performance. London: Routledge.

Bliss, A. and Harley, R. (2018) Training aerobic fitness. In Turner, A. and Comfort, P. (Eds.). Advanced Strength and Conditioning: An Evidence-based Approach. London: Routledge.

Hough, P. (2021) Endurance Training. In Hough, P., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (Eds.). (2021). Advanced personal training: science to practice. Routledge.

Recommended Articles

Burnley, M., & Jones, A. M. (2018). Power–duration relationship: Physiology, fatigue, and the limits of human performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2016.1249524

Further Reading

Barnes, K. R., & Kilding, A. E. (2015). Strategies to improve running economy. Sports Medicine, 45(1), 37-56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0246-y

Billat,L.V. (2001) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-Distance Running. Part I: Aerobic Interval Training Sports Med; 31 (1): 13-31 [full text]

Billat,L.V. (2001) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-Distance Running. Part II: Anaerobic Interval Training Sports Med; 31 (2): 75-90 [full text]

Buchheit, M. (2014). Monitoring training status with HR measures: do all roads lead to Rome?. Frontiers in Physiology, 5, 73. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00073

Buchheit, M., & Laursen, P. B. (2013). High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part I: Cardiopulmonary Emphasis. Sports Medicine, 43(5), 313-338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0029-x

Buchheit, M., & Laursen, P. B. (2013). High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part II: Anaerobic Energy, Neuromuscular Load and Practical Applications . Sports Medicine, 43(10), 927-954. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0066-5

Burnley, M., & Jones, A. M. (2018). Power–duration relationship: Physiology, fatigue, and the limits of human performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2016.1249524

Coffey, V. G., & Hawley, J. A. (2017). Concurrent exercise training: do opposites distract?. The Journal of physiology, 595(9), 2883-2896. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP272270

Dellal, A., Hill-Haas, S., Lago-Penas, C., & Chamari, K. (2011). Small-sided games in soccer: amateur vs. professional players' physiological responses, physical, and technical activities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(9), 2371-2381.

Foster, C., Porcari, J. P., Anderson, J., Paulson, M., Smaczny, D., Webber, H., ... & Udermann, B. (2008). The talk test as a marker of exercise training intensity. Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and prevention, 28(1), 24-30. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hcr.0000311504.41775.78

Fyfe, J. J., Bishop, D. J., & Stepto, N. K. (2014). Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables. Sports Medicine, 44(6), 743-762. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0162-1

Gabbett, T. J. (2016). The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(5), 273-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095788

Gastin, P. B. (2001). Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise. Sports Medicine, 31(10), 725-741. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-200131100-00003

Gibala, M. J., & Hawley, J. A. (2017). Sprinting toward fitness. Cell Metabolism, 25(5), 988-990. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2017.04.030

Gibala, M. J., Little, J. P., Van Essen, M., Wilkin, G. P., Burgomaster, K. A., Safdar, A., ... & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2006). Short‐term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. The Journal of Physiology, 575(3), 901-911. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.112094/full

Gielen, S., Schuler, G., & Adams, V. (2010). Cardiovascular effects of exercise training. Circulation, 122(12), 1221-1238. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/122/12/1221

Girard, O., Mendez-Villanueva, A., & Bishop, D. (2011). Repeated-sprint ability—Part I. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 673-694. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/11590550-000000000-00000

Bishop, D., Girard, O., & Mendez-Villanueva, A. (2011). Repeated-sprint ability—Part II. Sports Medicine, 41(9), 741-756. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/11590560-000000000-00000

Iaia, F., & Bangsbo, J. (2010). Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(s2), 11-23.

Jones, A. M., & Carter, H. (2000). The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine, 29(6), 373-386.https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-200029060-00001

Teaching Resources

STCD01 Cardio Training
Advanced Metabolic Conditioning

Joyner, M.J. and Coyle, E.F. (2008) Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. Journal of Physiology. Vol. 586, 35-44 [full text]

Laursen, P.B. and Jenkins, D.G. (2002) The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training: Optimising Training Programmes and Maximising Performance in Highly Trained Endurance Athletes, Sports Medicine, Vol.32, 53–73.[abstract]

Laursen, P. B. (2010). Training for intense exercise performance: high‐intensity or high‐volume training?. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(s2), 1-10.

Little, T. (2009). Optimizing the use of soccer drills for physiological development. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 31(3), 67-74. doi: 10.1519/SSC.0b013e3181a5910d

MacInnis, M. J., & Gibala, M. J. (2017). Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity. The Journal of Physiology, 595(9), 2915-2930 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/JP273196/full

Midgley, A. W., McNaughton, L. R., & Jones, A. M. (2007). Training to enhance the physiological determinants of long-distance running performance: : Can valid recommendations be given to runners and coaches based on current scientific knowledge? Sports Medicine, 37(10), 857-880. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-200737100-00003

Milanović, Z., Sporiš, G., & Weston, M. (2015). Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous endurance training for VO 2max improvements: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Sports medicine, 45(10), 1469-1481. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0365-0

Mujika, I. (2009) Tapering and peaking for optimal performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics [google books]

Persinger, R., Foster, C., Gibson, M., Fater, D. C., & Porcari, J. P. (2004). Consistency of the talk test for exercise prescription. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 36(9), 1632-1636. [www]

Plowman, S.A., Smtih, D.L. (2010) Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness and performance (3rd ed) Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins [Ch5 metabolic conditioning]

Robergs, R.A. and Landwehr, R. (2002) The surprising history of the “HRmax=220-age” equation.. JEPonline. 5(2):1-10 [full text]

Rønnestad, B. R., & Hansen, J. (2018). A scientific approach to improve physiological capacity of an elite cyclist. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 13(3), 390-393. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0228

Seiler, S. (2010). What is best practice for training intensity and duration distribution in endurance athletes?. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 5(3), 276-291.

Seiler, S., & Tønnessen, E. (2009). Intervals, thresholds, and long slow distance: the role of intensity and duration in endurance training. Sportscience, 13.

Solli, G. S., Tønnessen, E., & Sandbakk, Ø. (2017). The Training Characteristics of the World’s Most Successful Female Cross-Country Skier. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 1069. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.01069

Spencer, M., Bishop D., Dawson, B. and Goodman, C. (2005) Physiological and Metabolic Responses of Repeated-Sprint Activities: Specific to Field-Based Team Sports. Sports Med 35 (12): 1025-1044 [full text]

Stone, N.M., Kilding, A.E. (2009) Aerobic Conditioning for Team Sport Athletes Sports Medicine 39(8) 615-642 https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939080-00002

Tabata, I. et al (1997) Metabolic profile of high intensity intermittent exercises. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise 29(3); 390-395 [full text]

Tanaka, H. and Seals, D.R. (2008) Endurance exercise performance in Masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms Journal of Physiology Vol. 586, No. 1, 55–63 [full text]

Wilson, J. M., Marin, P. J., Rhea, M. R., Wilson, S. M., Loenneke, J. P., & Anderson, J. C. (2012). Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(8), 2293-2307. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e31823a3e2d

Winter, E. M., Jones, A. M., Davison, R. R., Bromley, P. D., & Mercer, T. H. (Eds.). (2006). Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines: Volume I–Sport Testing: The British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences Guide. Routledge.

Related Links on benjanefitness.com

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Chronic Exercise Induced Cardio-Respiratory Adaptations

High-Intensity Interval Training for Health

Further Links