Assessing Aerobic Capacity

This page of resources is designed to support the delivery of workshops and labs on aerobic capacity testing and the completion of related lab reports and essays. 

Study Questions

A series of questions to consider in relation to practical sessions and prior to writing related lab reports: 

Related content on this website

How to write a lab report

Aerobic Conditioning for Sport and Health

Chronic Exercise-Induced Cardio-Respiratory Adaptations

Testing Aerobic Capacity Workshop Support

Recommended Primer Articles

Hutchinson, A. (2020) What Does Your “Threshold” Really Mean?  

Millet, G. P., Burtscher, J., Bourdillon, N., Manferdelli, G., Burtscher, M., & Sandbakk, Ø. (2023). The VO2max Legacy of Hill and Lupton (1923)—100 Years On. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(aop), 1-4. 

Key Chapters

Bourdon, P. (2012) Blood Lactate Transition Thresholds: Concepts and Controversies. In: Tanner, R.& Gore, C.J., ed, Physiological Tests for Elite Athletes (2nd Ed), Australian Sports Commission. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics: 77-102.[amazon]

Jones, A.M. and DiMenna, F.J. (2011) Cardiovascular Assessment and Aerobic Training Prescription. In Cardinale,M., Newton,R., Nosaka,K. Strength and Conditioning: Biological Principles and Practical Applications. Oxford; Wiley-Blackwell [google books][companion website]

Jones, A.M., Vanhatalo, A.T. and Doust, J.H. (2009) Aerobic Exercise Performance. In Eston, R. & Reilly, T. (Ed.) (2009). Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual. Vol. 2: Physiology. (3rd Ed). London, Routledge [chapter 10: Aerobic exercise performance]

Morris, D. (2012) Lactate Threshold. In Miller, T. (Ed.)(2012) NSCA's Guide to Tests and Assessments. Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics: 125-145

Winter, E., Jones, A.M., Davison, R.C.R., Bromley, P.D., Mercer, T.H. (Eds.) (2007). Sport and exercise physiology testing guidelines. Vol 2: Exercise and Clinical Testing. British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences guide: London, Routledge.[google books][full text]

Recommended Videos

Dr Mark Burnley has posted a series of tutorials on key aspects of exercise testing. Two of these videos are shown below but there are many more excellent tutorials to be found here at Dr Burnley's YouTube channel.

Recommended Journal Articles

Chamari, K., & Padulo, J. (2015). ‘Aerobic’ and ‘Anaerobic’ terms used in exercise physiology: a critical terminology reflection. Sports medicine-open, 1(1), 9. 

Faude, O., Kindermann, W., Meyer, T (2009) Lactate Threshold Concepts: How Valid are They? Sports Medicine Vol.39, No.6, 469-490 [abstract][full text]

Ferguson, B. S., Rogatzki, M. J., Goodwin, M. L., Kane, D. A., Rightmire, Z., & Gladden, L. B. (2018). Lactate metabolism: historical context, prior misinterpretations, and current understanding. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1-38.

Haugen, T., Paulsen, G., Seiler, S., & Sandbakk, Ø. (2018). New Records in Human Power. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(6), 678-686. 

Jamnick, N. A., Botella, J., Pyne, D. B., & Bishop, D. J. (2018). Manipulating graded exercise test variables affects the validity of the lactate threshold and VO2peak. PloS one, 13(7), e0199794. 

Jones, A. M. (2006) The physiology of the world record holder for the women's marathon. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching Vol.1, 101-116 [full text]

Jones, A. M., Burnley, M., Black, M. I., Poole, D. C., & Vanhatalo, A. (2019). The maximal metabolic steady state: redefining the ‘gold standard’. Physiological Reports, 7(10), e14098. 

Jones, A. M., Kirby, B.S., Clark, I.E., Rice, H.M., Fulkerson, E., Wylie, L.J., Wilkerson, D.P., Vanhatalo, A. and Wilkins, B. (2020) Physiological demands of running at 2-hour marathon race pace. Journal of Applied Physiology  

Joyner, M. J., Ruiz, J. R., & Lucia, A. (2011). The two-hour marathon: who and when?. Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(1), 275-277. 

Midgley, A.W., McNaughton, L.R., Polman, R., & Marchant, D. (2007) Criteria for determination of maximal oxygen uptake: a brief critique and recommendations for future research. Sports Medicine, Vol.37, No.12,1019-1028. [abstract]

Poole, D.C. Rossiter, H.B., Brooks, G.A. Gladden, L.B. (2020) The anaerobic threshold: 50+ years of controversy J Physiol. DOI: 10.1113/JP279963 (and see this article for a brief summary  )

Clinical Populations Perspectives

Gosselink, R. J. A. D., Troosters, T., & Decramer, M. (2004). Exercise testing: why, which and how to interpret. Breathe, 1(2), 120-129.  

Puente-Maestu, L. (2020). Physiological rationale of commonly used clinical exercise tests. Pulmonology. 

Representative blood lactate curve with 14 LTs calculated from one GXT and one participant.From Jamnick, N. A., Botella, J., Pyne, D. B., & Bishop, D. J. (2018) 

Further Reading

Achten, J. and Jeukendrup, A. E. (2003) Heart rate monitoring: applications and limitations. Sports Medicine. Vol. 33, No. 7: 517–538. [Online] [full text]

Arney, B. E., Glover, R., Fusco, A., Cortis, C., de Koning, J. J., van Erp, T., ... & Foster, C. (2019). Comparison of rating of perceived exertion scales during incremental and interval exercise. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology, 51(2), 150-157.  [researchgate]

Astrand, P-O (1972) Work Tests with the bicycle ergometer. Varberg, Sweden: Monark Crescent AB [full text]

Bacon, A. P., Carter, R. E., Ogle, E. A., & Joyner, M. J. (2013). VO2ma Trainability and High Intensity Interval Training in Humans: A Meta-Analysis. PloS One, 8(9), e73182.[full text]

Bangsbo,J. Iaia, F.M. and Krustrup, P. (2008) The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test A Useful Tool for Evaluation of Physical Performance in Intermittent Sports Sports Med 38 (1); 37-51 [full text]

Running economy profiles of two runners of equal VO 2 max. 
Factors affecting running economy. 
Figures from Barnes, K. R., & Kilding, A. E. (2015). Running economy: measurement, norms, and determining factors. Sports Medicine-Open, 1(1), 1-15.

Barnes, K. R., & Kilding, A. E. (2015). Running economy: measurement, norms, and determining factors. Sports Medicine-Open, 1(1), 1-15.   

Bassett, D. R., & Howley, E.T.(2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 32(1): 70–84 [full text]

Beaver, W. L., Wasserman, K., & Whipp, B. J. (1986). A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. Journal of applied physiology, 60(6), 2020-2027. 

Belcher, C. P. and Pemberton, C. L. (2012) The Use of the Blood Lactate Curve to Develop Training Intensity Guidelines for the Sports of Track and Field and Cross-Country. International Journal of Exercise Science. Vol. 5, No. 2: 148–159. [fulltext]

Beltrami, F. G., Froyd, C., Mauger, A. R., Metcalfe, A. J., Marino, F. and Noakes, T. D. (2012) Conventional testing methods produce submaximal values of maximum oxygen consumption. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol. 46, No. 1: 23–29. [Online]. Available from: doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090306[full text]

Bentley, D J., Newell, J. & Bishop, D. (2007) Incremental Exercise Test Design and Analysis: Implications for Performance Diagnostics in Endurance Athletes Sports Medicine, Vol 37, No.7, 575-586 [abstract]

Billat V., Dalmay F., Antonini M.T., et al. (1994) A method for determining the maximal steady state of blood lactate concentration from two levels of submaximal exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 69: 196-202 [full text]

Billat, V. L., Sirvent, P., Py, G., Koralsztein, J. P., & Mercier, J. (2003). The concept of maximal lactate steady state. Sports Medicine, 33(6), 407-426.

Borg, G. A., & Noble, B. J. (1974). Perceived exertion. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 2(1), 131-154. [full text]

Burnley, M. and Jones, A.M. (2007) Oxygen uptake kinetics as a determinant of sports performance, European Journal of Sport Science, Vol. 7, No. 2, 63 – 79 [full text]

Burnley, M., & Jones, A. M. (2018). Power–duration relationship: Physiology, fatigue, and the limits of human performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(1), 1-12. 

Bräuer, E. K., & Smekal, G. (2020). VO2 Steady State at and Just Above Maximum Lactate Steady State Intensity. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 41(09): 574-581 DOI: 10.1055/a-1100-7253 

Brink-Elfegoun, T., Kaijser, L., Gustafsson, T. and Ekblom, B. (2007) Maximal oxygen uptake is not limited by a central nervous system governor. Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 102, No. 2: 781–786. [Online]. Available from: doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00566.2006 [full text]

Brooks, G. A. (2018). The science and translation of lactate shuttle theory. Cell Metabolism, 27(4), 757-785. 

Brooks, G. A. (2020). Lactate as a fulcrum of metabolism. Redox biology, 35, 101454. 

Brooks, G. A., Arevalo, J. A., Osmond, A. D., Leija, R. G., Curl, C. C., & Tovar, A. P. (2021) Lactate in contemporary biology: A phoenix risen. The Journal of Physiology. 

Bruce, RA, Kusumi, F, and Hosmer, D. (1973) Maximal oxygen intake and nomographic assessment of functional aerobic impairment in cardiovascular disease. Am. Heart J. 85: 546-562[abstract]

Bosquet, L., Leger, L. & Legros, P. (2002) Methods to determine aerobic endurance Sports Med 32(11): 675-700 [full text]

Cairns, S. P. (2006). Lactic acid and exercise performance. Sports Medicine, 36(4), 279-291.

Carey, D.G., Raymond,R.L., Duoos B.A. (2002) Intra- and inter-observer reliability in selection of the heart rate deflection point during incremental exercise: comparison to a computer-generated deflection point Journal of Sports Science and Medicine  1, 115-121 [full text]

Carey, D. (2002) Assessment of the accuracy of the Conconi test in determining gas analysis anaerobic threshold. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 16(4) 641-644 [abstract]

Castagna, C., Impellizzeri,F.M., Rampinini, E., D’Ottavio,S. Manzi, V. (2008)The Yo—Yo intermittent recovery test in basketball players Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 11, 202-208.

Chalmers, S., Esterman, A., Eston, R., & Norton, K. (2015). Standardization of the Dmax method for calculating the second lactate threshold. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(7), 921-926.  

Christie, C. J.-A. and Ingram, B. (2001) Impact of training status on maximal oxygen uptake criteria attainment during running. South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol. 21, No. 1: 19–22. [full text]

Cooper, K.H. (1968) A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake. JAMA Vol. 203, 201-204 [abstract]

Conconi, F., Ferrari, M., Ziglio, P., Droghetti, P. and Codeca, L. (1982) Determination of the anaerobic threshold by a noninvasive field test in runners. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory,Environmental and Exercise Physiology 52: 869- 873.

Conconi, F., Grazzi, G., Casoni, I., Guglielmini, C., Borsetto, C., Ballarin, E., Mazzoni, G., Patracchini, M., Manfredini, F.(1996)The Conconi Test: Methodology After 12 Years of Application Int J Sports Med 17(7): 509-519 [abstract

Davis, J.A. (1985) Anaerobic threshold: review of the concept and directions for future research. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 6-18

Edwards, A. M., Clark, N. and Macfadyen, A. M. (2003) Lactate And Ventilatory Thresholds Reflect The Training Status Of Professional Soccer Players Where Maximum Aerobic Power Is Unchanged. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Vol. 2: 23–29. [full text]

Ekblom, B. (2009) Counterpoint: maximal oxygen uptake is not limited by a central nervous system governor. Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 106, No. 1: 339–41; discussion 341–2. [Online]. Available from: doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.90844.2008a [full text]

Eston, R. & Reilly, T. (Ed.) (2009). Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual. Vol. 2: Physiology. (3rd Ed). London, Routledge [chapter 10: Aerobic exercise performance]

Fenstermaker, K.L., Plowman, S.A. and Looney, M.A. (1992) Validation of the Rockport Fitness Walking Test in females 65 years and older. Res Q Exerc Sport. Vol.63, No.3, 322-7 [abstract]

Ferretti, G., Fagoni, N., Taboni, A. et al. (2022) A century of exercise physiology: key concepts on coupling respiratory oxygen flow to muscle energy demand during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 

Gamelin FX, Coquart J, Ferrari N, et al (2006). Prediction of one hour running performance using constant duration tests. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 20(4) 735-739 [full text]

Gladden,L.B. (2004) Lactate metabolism: a new paradigm for the third millennium. The Journal of Physiology, 558, 5-30.[full text]

Goodwin, M.L., Harris, J.E., Hernández,A., Gladden, L.B. (2007) Blood Lactate Measurements and Analysis during Exercise: A Guide for Clinicians J Diabetes Sci Technol. 1(4): 558–569. [full text]

Guellich, A. and Seiler, S. (2010) Lactate profile changes in relation to training characteristics in junior elite cyclists. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. Vol. 5, No. 3: 316–327. [Online] [full text]

Harnish, C. R., Swensen, T. C. and Pate. R. R. (2001) Methods for estimating the maximal lactate steady state in trained cyclists. Med.Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 6, 1052–1055.[full text]

Harvey, J.A.(2011) A Review: Analyzing How Oxygen Uptake Kinetics Limit Exercise Performance. JEPonline 14(3):67-73 [full text]

Hellsten, Y., & Nyberg, M. (2015). Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training. Comprehensive Physiology.6(1), 1-32.[abstract]

Heyward, V.H. (2010) Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription (6th Ed.) Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.[google books] [companion website][Step Test Protocols][Treadmill Protocols][Cycle Ergometer Protocols][lab briefing]

Hoffman,J (2006) Norms for Fitness, Performance and Health.Champaign IL: Human Kinetics [google books]

Howley,E.T., Bassett,D.R., Welch,H.G. (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake:review and commentary.Medecine & Science in Sports and Exercise 27(9)1292-1301 [full text]

Kalinski, M.I., Norkowski,H., Kerner,M.S. and Tkaczuk, W.G. (2002) Anaerobic Power Characteristics of Elite Athletes in National Level Team-Sport Games European Journal of Sport Science, 2(3) [full text

Keir, D. A., Paterson, D. H., Kowalchuk, J. M., & Murias, J. M. (2018). Using ramp-incremental V̇ O2 responses for constant-intensity exercise selection. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 43(9), 882-892. 

Jacobs, R. A., Rasmussen, P., Siebenmann, C., Díaz, V., Gassmann, M., Pesta, D., ... & Lundby, C. (2011). Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(5), 1422-1430. 

Jamnick, N. A., Pettitt, R. W., Granata, C., Pyne, D. B., & Bishop, D. J. (2020). An examination and critique of current methods to determine exercise intensity. Sports Medicine, 1-28. 

Janssen, P. (2001) Lactate Threshold Training. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics [google books]

Jones, A. M. and Doust, J. H. (1996) A 1 % treadmill grade most accurately reflects the energetic cost of outdoor running. Journal of Sport Sciences. Vol. 14: 321–327. [full text] (see image below)

Jones, A.M. & Doust, J.H. (1998) The validity of the lactate minimum test for determination of the maximal lactate steady state Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Vol.30, No.8, 1304-1313 [abstract]

Jones, A.M. and Burnley, M. (2009) Oxygen uptake kinetics: an underappreciated determinant of exercise performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 4(4), 524-32 [abstract]

Jones, A. & Carter, H. (2000) The Effect of Endurance Training on Parameters of Aerobic Fitness Sports Med 29(6), 373-386

Jones, A. M., Vanhatalo, A., Burnley, M., Morton, R. H., & Poole, D. C. (2010). Critical power: implications for determination of VO2ma and exercise tolerance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(10), 1876-90. 

Jones, A. M., & Vanhatalo, A. (2017). The ‘critical power’ concept: applications to sports performance with a focus on intermittent high-intensity exercise. Sports Medicine, 47(1), 65-78. 

Jones, A. M., Burnley, M., Black, M. I., Poole, D. C., & Vanhatalo, A. (2019). The maximal metabolic steady state: redefining the ‘gold standard’. Physiological Reports, 7(10), e14098. 

Joyner, M. J. (1991). Modeling: optimal marathon performance on the basis of physiological factors. Journal of applied physiology, 70(2), 683-687. 

Joyner, M. J. (2017). Physiological limits to endurance exercise performance: influence of sex. The Journal of Physiology, 595(9), 2949-2954. 

Keir, D.A., Iannetta, D., Mattioni Maturana, F. et al. (2021) Identification of Non-Invasive Exercise Thresholds: Methods, Strategies, and an Online App. Sports Med 

Click here for a twitter thread started by @EricRawsonPhD that includes many images of people measuring oxygen uptake over many decades.

Kipp, S., Kram, R., & Hoogkamer, W. (2019). Extrapolating metabolic savings in running: implications for performance predictions. Frontiers in physiology, 10, 79. 

Kline, G.M., Porcari, J.P., Hintermeister, R., Freedson, P.S., Ward, A., McCarron, F., Ross, J. and Rippe, J.M. (1987) Estimation of a VO2ma from a one-mile track walk, gender, age, and body weight. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. Vol.19, No.3, 253-259 [full text]

Lundby, C., & Robach, P. (2015). Performance enhancement: what are the physiological limits?. Physiology, 30(4), 282-292.  

Luttikholt, H., & Jones, A. M. (2022). Effect of protocol on peak power output in continuous incremental cycle exercise tests. European journal of applied physiology, 1-12.   

Maud, P.J. & Foster C. (Eds)(2006) Physiological Assessment of Human Fitness (2nd Ed.). Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics [google books]

Mauger, A. R., & Sculthorpe, N. (2012). A new VO2max protocol allowing self-pacing in maximal incremental exercise. Br J Sports Med, 46(1), 59-63.

Mcardle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Pechar, G.S., et al (1972) Reliability and interrelationships between maximal oxygen intake, physical work capacity and step-test scores in college women Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 4, 182-186 [abstract]

Mcgehee, J.C., Tanner, C.J., & Houmard, J.A. (2005) A comparison of  methods for estimating the lactate threshold.Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 19(3), 553–558 [full text]

Midgley, A. W., McNaughton, L. R. and Jones, A. M. (2007) Training to enhance the physiological determinants of long-distance running performance: can valid recommendations be given to runners and coaches based on current scientific knowledge? Sports Medicine. Vol. 37, No. 10: 857–880. [abstract]

Historical perspectives on the assessment of aerobic endurance

Coggan, A. R., & Costill, D. L. (2022). A Brief History of Exercise Metabolism. In: McConell, G. (eds) Exercise Metabolism (pp. 1-18). Cham: Springer International Publishing. 

Glancy, B., Kane, D. A., Kavazis, A. N., Goodwin, M. L., Willis, W. T., & Gladden, L. B. (2021). Mitochondrial lactate metabolism: history and implications for exercise and disease. The Journal of physiology, 599(3), 863-888. 

Hawley, J. A., Maughan, R. J., & Hargreaves, M. (2015). Exercise metabolism: historical perspective. Cell metabolism, 22(1), 12-17. 

Hughson, R. L. (2009). Oxygen uptake kinetics: historical perspective and future directions. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism, 34(5), 840-850.  

Robinson, S., Edwards, H. T., & Dill, D. B. (1937). New records in human power. Science, 85, 409–410. 

Wackerhage, H., Gehlert, S., Schulz, H., Weber, S., Ring-Dimitriou, S., & Heine, O. (2022). Lactate thresholds and the simulation of human energy metabolism: Contributions by the cologne sports medicine group in the 1970s and 1980s. Frontiers in Physiology, 1308. 

Millet, G. P., Burtscher, J., Bourdillon, N., Manferdelli, G., Burtscher, M., & Sandbakk, Ø. (2023). The VO2max Legacy of Hill and Lupton (1923)—100 Years On. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(aop), 1-4. 

Morrow, J.R., Jackson, A.W., Disch, J.G., Mood, D.P. (2010) Measurement and evaluation in human performance (4th ed) Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics [google books]

Newell, J., Higgins, D., Madden, N., Cruickshank, J., Einbeck, J., McMillan, K., & McDonald, R. (2007). Software for calculating blood lactate endurance markers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(12), 1403-1409.[full text]

Noakes, T. D. and Marino, F. E. (2009) Point: maximal oxygen uptake is limited by a central nervous system governor. Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 106, No. 1: 338–9; discussion 341. [Online]. Available from: doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.90844.2008 [full text]

Noonan, V. and Dean, E. (2000) Submaximal Exercise Testing: Clinical Application and Interpretation Physical Therapy Vol. 80, No. 8 . 782-807 [full text]

Norton,K., Norton, L., & Sadgrove, D. (2010) Position statement on physical activity and exercise intensity terminology Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 13: 496–502 [full text]

Owles, W. H. (1930). Alterations in the lactic acid content of the blood as a result of light exercise, and associated changes in the CO2-combining power of the blood and in the alveolar CO2 pressure. The Journal of physiology, 69(2), 214. 

Podlogar, T., Leo, P., & Spragg, J. (2022). Using VO2max as a marker of training status in athletes-can we do better?. Journal of Applied Physiology. 

Poole, D. C., & Jones, A. M. (2017). Measurement of the maximum oxygen uptake VO2max: VO2peak is no longer acceptable. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(4), 997-1002. 

Poole, D.C. Rossiter, H.B., Brooks, G.A. Gladden, L.B. (2020) The anaerobic threshold: 50+ years of controversy J Physiol. DOI: 10.1113/JP279963

Poole, D. C., Burnley, M., Vanhatalo, A., Rossiter, H. B., & Jones, A. M. (2016). Critical power: an important fatigue threshold in exercise physiology. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 48(11), 2320. 

Puente-Maestu, L. (2020). Physiological rationale of commonly used clinical exercise tests. Pulmonology. 

Pyne, D. B., Lee, H. and Swanwick. K.M. (2001) Monitoring the lactate threshold in world-ranked swimmers. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,33(2) 291–297 [full text].

Ramsbottom, R., Brewer, J., Williams, C. (1988) A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Br J Sports Med Vol. 22, 141-144 [abstract]

Reiman, M.P. & Manske, R.C. (2009) Functional Testing in Human Performance. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics [google books]

Robergs, R.A., Ghiasvand, F. and Parker.D. (2004) Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287: R502–R516 

Sandbakk, Ø., Holmberg, H. C., Leirdal, S., & Ettema, G. (2011). The physiology of world‐class sprint skiers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(6), e9-e16.

Scharhag-Rosenberger, F., Meyer, T., Walitzek, S. and W. Kindermann. (2009) Time Course of Changes in Endurance Capacity: A 1-yr Training Study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 5, 1130–1137,  [full text]

Smyth, B., & Muniz-Pumares, D. (2020). Calculation of critical speed from raw training data in recreational marathon runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 52(12), 2637. 

Svedahl, K., and MacIntosh, B.R. (2003). Anaerobic threshold: The concept and methods of measurement. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. Vol.28, No.2, 299-323. [full text]

Tønnessen, E., Haugen, T. A., Hem, E., Leirstein, S., & Seiler, S. (2015). Maximal aerobic capacity in the winter-Olympics endurance disciplines: Olympic-medal benchmarks for the time period 1990–2013. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(7), 835-839. 

Vachon, J. A., Bassett, D.R., and Clarke, S. (1999) Validity of the heart rate deflection point as a predictor of lactate threshold during running. J. Appl. Physiol. 87(1): 452-459 [full text]

van der Zwaard, S., Brocherie, F., & Jaspers, R. T. (2021). Under the hood: skeletal muscle determinants of endurance performance. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 213. 

Wan, J. J., Qin, Z., Wang, P. Y., Sun, Y., & Liu, X. (2017). Muscle fatigue: general understanding and treatment. Experimental & molecular medicine, 49(10), e384-e384. 

Wasserman, K., Van Kessel, A. L., & Burton, G. G. (1967). Interaction of physiological mechanisms during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 22(1), 71-85. 

Yeh, M.P., Gardner, R.M., Adams, T.D., Yanowitz, F.G., Crapo, R.O. (1983) "Anaerobic threshold": problems of determination and validation. J Appl Physiol. Vol. 55, No.4,1178-86

Zeiher, J., Ombrellaro, K. J., Perumal, N., Keil, T., Mensink, G. B., & Finger, J. D. (2019). Correlates and determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults: a systematic review. Sports Medicine- Open, 5(1), 1-24. 

Further Links

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Critical Power and VO2 kinetics with Mark Burnley, PhD | Scientific Triathlon | EP#257

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Mark Burnley, PhD, is an exercise physiologist at the University of Kent. Mark's main research interests include oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics, where an important application is how to optimally use warm-ups, as well as Critical Power, which forms the transition point (or transition area) between the heavy and severe exercise domains. Because of the non-steady-state nature of exercising above CP, it has significant importance in a large number of training and racing applications.

In this Episode you'll learn about: