Physical Activity Guidelines 

Key research & issues

One outcome of the research into the relationship between physical activity and health is the development of physical activity guidelines. National guidance, condition specific advice or age-related guidelines are intended to provide information to individuals, professionals and policy makers with the aim of influencing activity levels and consequently reducing the prevalence of non-communicable diseases attributable to physical inactivity. 

This resource list is intended to support students and practitioner’s engagement with the evidence that underpins the various guidelines and includes examples of critical issues worthy of consideration. Primarily designed as a resource for my students it contains a series of questions and a reading list to help examine some of these areas.

Find out about the latest UK Physical Activity Guidelines here - https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/physical-activity-guidelines 

Critical questions relating to Physical Activity Guidelines (PAGs)

(These are not in any order of importance and some may even be overlapping or repeated in some way)

What are health-related physical activity guidelines?

What's the evidence that underpins PAGs?

How do measurement issues impact the guidelines?

What role do strength/resistance recommendations play in the guidance?

Can one do too much exercise? What is too much? 

What role might high intensity interval training play in the exercise guidelines? 

Does the pattern of exercise/activity behaviour make a difference?

How is sedentary behaviour dealt with in physical activity guidelines? 

Guidelines are one thing but what works in the pursuit of increased pa levels? 

Communicating the guidelines

(NB: Please tweet me or email if you have any more to add) (thanks to @PHjohnb for the communication prompts and references - Jan 2021)

Recommended Key Reading

Two articles to get started

These are two good articles to get you started on this body of work, to focus your reading. Both have some of the most used evidence in them but also content and ideas that should stimulate a level of critical thinking:

Warburton, D. E., & Bredin, S. S. (2018). Lost in Translation: What Does the Physical Activity and Health Evidence Actually Tell Us?. In Lifestyle in Heart Health and Disease (pp. 175-186). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811279-3.00013-6  

Kujala, U. M. (2018). Is physical activity a cause of longevity? It is not as straightforward as some would believe. A critical analysis. Br J Sports Med, 52(14), 914-918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098639

Other key reading

Chief Medical Officers for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales (2019) UK Chief Medical Officers' Physical Activity Guidelines. London: Crown. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/physical-activity-guidelines-uk-chief-medical-officers-report  [Infographics]

Kyu, H. H., Bachman, V. F., Alexander, L. T., Mumford, J. E., Afshin, A., Estep, K., ... & Cercy, K. (2016). Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. BMJ, 354, i3857. http://www.bmj.com/content/354/bmj.i3857 (click here for the insightful rapid responses/comments)

Rhodes, R. E., Janssen, I., Bredin, S. S., Warburton, D. E., & Bauman, A. (2017). Physical activity: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. Psychology & health, 32(8), 942-975. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2017.1325486

Stamatakis, E., Ding, D., Ekelund, U., Bauman, A.E. (2021) Sliding down the risk factor rankings: reasons for and consequences of the dramatic downgrading of physical activity in the Global Burden of Disease 2019 British Journal of Sports Medicine https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104064  

Warburton, D. E., & Bredin, S. S. (2017). Health benefits of physical activity: a systematic review of current systematic reviews. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 32(5), 541-556. https://doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0000000000000437  [video abstract]

A special edition of Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism covering the research behind the Canadian 2020 Guidelines https://cdnsciencepub.com/toc/apnm/45/10+%28Suppl.+2%29 

Books/Textbooks/Chapters

Ainsworth, B. E., & Macera, C. A. (2012). Physical Activity and Public Health Practice. CRC Press.[google books]

Bauman, A. E., Macniven, R., & Gebel, K. (2013). Influencing Policy and Environments to Promote Physical Activity Behavior Change. In C. Nigg, (Ed) ACSM's Behavioral Aspects of Physical Activity and Exercise, 191.

Bornstein, D. B., Eyler, A. A., Maddock, J. E., & Moore, J. B. (Eds.). (2019). Physical activity and public health practice. Springer Publishing Company. [Ch 1] [podcasts]

Stensel, D.J., Hardman, A.E. and Gill, J.M.R. (2021) Physical Activity and Health: The Evidence Explained. (3rd Ed) Routledge. [companion website

Bouchard, C., Blair, S. N., & Haskell, W. (2012). Physical Activity and Health (2nd Ed). Human Kinetics.

Dishman, R., Heath, G., & Lee, I. M. (2013). Physical Activity Epidemiology (2nd Ed). Human Kinetics.

Dugdill, L., Crone, D., & Murphy, R. (2009). Physical activity and health promotion: Evidence-based approaches to practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Ekkekakis, P. (2013). Redrawing the model of the exercising human in exercise prescriptions. In Rippe, J. 2013) Lifestyle Medicine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press

Eyler, A.A., Chriqui, J.F., Moreland-Russell, S., & Brownson, R. C. (2016). Prevention, policy, and public health. Oxford University Press. Chapter 8 Public Policy and Physical Activity

Foreman, J. (2019). Exercise is Medicine: How Physical Activity Boosts Health and Slows Aging. Oxford University Press. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/exercise-is-medicine-9780190685461 

Hardman, A.E. and Stensel, D.J.(2009) Physical Activity and Health: The Evidence Explained. (2nd Ed) Oxon, Routledge

Kohl, H.W., & Murray, T. (2012). Foundations of physical activity and public health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Leitzman, M.F., Jochem, C. & Schmid, D. (eds.) (2018) Sedentary Behaviour Epidemiology Springer. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/153398096.pdf 

Lieberman, D. (2020). Exercised: The Science of Physical Activity, Rest and Health. Penguin UK. [book review]

Rahl, R. (2010). Physical activity and health guidelines: recommendations for various ages, fitness levels, and conditions from 57 authoritative sources. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.[google books]

Rose, D. J., & Fisher, K. L. (2018). The Role of Government Policy in Promoting Physical Activity. In The Palgrave Handbook of Ageing and Physical Activity Promotion (pp. 607-626). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71291-8_30  

Warburton, D. E., & Bredin, S. S. (2018). Lost in Translation: What Does the Physical Activity and Health Evidence Actually Tell Us?. In Lifestyle in Heart Health and Disease (pp. 175-186). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811279-3.00013-6 

Wasfy, M. M., & Baggish, A. L. (2019). Truth About Physical Fitness and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction: The HUNT Is On. Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, 8(9). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012567 

Zhu, W., & Owen, N. (Eds.). (2017). Sedentary Behavior and Health: Concepts, Assessments, and Interventions. Human Kinetics. [google books]

Recent Guidelines

World Health Organization Guidelines - Nov 2020

World Health Organization. (‎2020)‎. WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/336656

World Health Organization. (‎2020)‎. WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: at a glance. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/337001 

BJSM Special Issue - December 2020 - Volume 54 - 24 - https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/54/24 

IJBNPA Special Issue - Nov 2020 - Vol 17 - https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles?query=&volume=17&searchType=&tab=keyword 

Bull, F. C., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M. P., Cardon, G., ... & Willumsen, J. F. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British journal of sports medicine, 54(24), 1451-1462. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955 

Dempsey, P. C., Friedenreich, C. M., Leitzmann, M. F., Buman, M. P., Lambert, E., Willumsen, J., & Bull, F. (2020). Global Public Health Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior for People Living With Chronic Conditions: A Call to Action, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, , 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0525  

Ding, D, Mutrie, N., Bauman, A., Pratt, M., Hallal, P.R.C., & Powell, K.E. (2020) Physical activity guidelines 2020: comprehensive and inclusive recommendations to activate populations. The Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32229-7   

DiPietro, L., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S. J., Borodulin, K., Bull, F. C., Buman, M. P., ... & Willumsen, J. F. (2020). Advancing the global physical activity agenda: recommendations for future research by the 2020 WHO physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines development group. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01042-2 


Listen to a podcast #1

In this 20-minute podcast, Prof Bull and Dr Willumsen discuss the new global recommendations in depth, explain what has changed since the 2010 guidelines, and outline the next steps forward to creating more active people for a healthier world. 

Listen to a podcast #2

Emmanuel Stamatakis is Professor of Physical Activity, Lifestyle, and Population Health at The University of Sydney. Emmanuel leads a research program of epidemiologic and interventional research investigating how lifestyles and health-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, screen time, alcohol consumption, sleep, dog ownership) influence cardiometabolic health, mental well-being and mortality risk; and how the socioeconomic environment influences these lifestyle health behaviours and their health effects.

BJSM Special Issue - December 2020 - Volume 54 - 24 - https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/54/24 
Image from: Ding, D, Mutrie, N., Bauman, A., Pratt, M., Hallal, P.R.C., & Powell, K.E. (2020) Physical activity guidelines 2020: comprehensive and inclusive recommendations to activate populations. The Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32229-7

Journal Articles

Abou Sawan, S., Nunes, E. A., Lim, C., McKendry, J., & Phillips, S. M. (2023). The Health Benefits of Resistance Exercise: Beyond Hypertrophy and Big Weights. Exercise, Sport, and Movement, 1(1), e00001. https://doi.org/10.1249/ESM.0000000000000001 

Ainsworth, B. E., Haskell, W. L., Herrmann, S. D., Meckes, N., Bassett Jr, D. R., Tudor-Locke, C., ... & Leon, A. S. (2011). 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(8), 1575-1581.[abstract]

Ahmadi, M. N., Clare, P. J., Katzmarzyk, P. T., del Pozo Cruz, B., Lee, I. M., & Stamatakis, E. (2022). Vigorous physical activity, incident heart disease, and cancer: how little is enough?. European Heart Journal. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac572 

Image from: Ahmadi, M. N., Clare, P. J., Katzmarzyk, P. T., del Pozo Cruz, B., Lee, I. M., & Stamatakis, E. (2022). Vigorous physical activity, incident heart disease, and cancer: how little is enough?. European Heart Journal. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac572 

Alexander, S. A., & Coveney, J. (2013). A critical discourse analysis of Canadian and Australian public health recommendations promoting physical activity to children. Health Sociology Review, 22(4), 353-364.

Alexander, S. A., Fusco, C., & Frohlich, K. L. (2015). ‘You have to do 60 minutes of physical activity per day… I saw it on TV’: Children's constructions of play in the context of Canadian public health discourse of playing for health. Sociology of health & illness, 37(2), 227-240.

Andersen, L. B., Mota, J., & Di Pietro, L. (2016). Update on the global pandemic of physical inactivity. The Lancet. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30960-6

Arem, H., Moore, S. C., Patel, A., Hartge, P., De Gonzalez, A. B., Visvanathan, K., ... & Linet, M. S. (2015). Leisure time physical activity and mortality: a detailed pooled analysis of the dose-response relationship. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(6), 959-967. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0533

Arem H, DiPietro L. (2017) Physical Activity on the Weekend. Can It Wait Until Then?. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.8050 http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2596003

Artinian, N. T., Fletcher, G. F., Mozaffarian, D., Kris-Etherton, P., Van Horn, L., Lichtenstein, A. H., ... & Meininger, J. C. (2010). Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2010/07/12/CIR.0b013e3181e8edf1

Ashton, R. E., Tew, G. A., Aning, J. J., Gilbert, S. E., Lewis, L., & Saxton, J. M. (2020). Effects of short-term, medium-term and long-term resistance exercise training on cardiometabolic health outcomes in adults: systematic review with meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine, 54(6), 341-348.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098970  

Bakrania, K., Edwardson, C. L., Bodicoat, D. H., Esliger, D. W., Gill, J. M., Kazi, A., ... & Khunti, K. (2016). Associations of mutually exclusive categories of physical activity and sedentary time with markers of cardiometabolic health in English adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Health Survey for England. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 25. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-016-2694-9

Banach, M., Lewek, J., Surma, S., Penson, P.E., Sahebkar, A., Martin, S.S., Bajraktari, G., Henein, M.Y., Reiner, Ž., Bielecka-Dąbrowa, A., Bytyçi, I. (2023) The association between daily step count and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a meta-analysis, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology,zwad229, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwad229 

Barnett, I., van Sluijs, E. M., & Ogilvie, D. (2012). Physical activity and transitioning to retirement: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(3), 329-336.

Barry, V. W., Baruth, M., Beets, M. W., Durstine, J. L., Liu, J., & Blair, S. N. (2014). Fitness vs. fatness on all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 56(4), 382-390. 

Bassett, D. R., Troiano, R. P., McClain, J. J., & Wolff, D. L. (2015). Accelerometer-based physical activity: total volume per day and standardized measures. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47(4), 833-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102292

Batacan, R. B., Duncan, M. J., Dalbo, V. J., Tucker, P. S., & Fenning, A. S. (2016). Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. British Journal of Sports Medicine, http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/6/494

Bauman, A. E., Nelson, D. E., Pratt, M., Matsudo, V., & Schoeppe, S. (2006). Dissemination of physical activity evidence, programs, policies, and surveillance in the international public health arena. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31(4), 57-65.

Bauman, A. E., Reis, R. S., Sallis, J. F., Wells, J. C., Loos, R. J., Martin, B. W., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?. The Lancet, 380 (9838), 258-271.

For the full Lancet Physical Activity Series (2012 or 2016) click either image below

Bauman, A., Finegood, D. T., & Matsudo, V. (2009). International perspectives on the physical inactivity crisis—Structural solutions over evidence generation?. Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 309-312. [full text]

Bauman, A., Merom, D., Bull, F. C., Buchner, D. M., & Fiatarone Singh, M. A. (2016). Updating the evidence for physical activity: summative reviews of the epidemiological evidence, prevalence, and interventions to promote “active aging”. The Gerontologist, 56(Suppl_2), S268-S280.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnw031 

Bélanger, M., Townsend, N., & Foster, C. (2011). Age-related differences in physical activity profiles of English adults. Preventive Medicine, 52(3), 247-249.

Bellew, B., Bauman, A., Martin, B., Bull, F., & Matsudo, V. (2011). Public policy actions needed to promote physical activity. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, 5(4), 340-349. [full text]

Bennie, J. A., Kolbe-Alexander, T., Seghers, J., Biddle, S. J., & De Cocker, K. (2020). Trends in Muscle-Strengthening Exercise Among Nationally Representative Samples of United States Adults Between 2011 and 2017. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 17(5), 512-518.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0472 

Berryman, J. W. (2010). Exercise is medicine: a historical perspective. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 9(4), 195-201.[full text]

Biddle, G. J., Edwardson, C. L., Rowlands, A. V., Davies, M. J., Bodicoat, D. H., Hardeman, W., ... & Yates, T. (2019). Differences in objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour between white Europeans and south Asians recruited from primary care: cross-sectional analysis of the PROPELS trial. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6341-5  

Biddle, S. J., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports90185.

Biddle, S. J., & Batterham, A. M. (2015). High-intensity interval exercise training for public health: a big HIT or shall we HIT it on the head?. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 95 [fulltext]

Biddle, S.J., Bengoechea García, E., Pedisic, Z. et al. (2017) Screen Time, Other Sedentary Behaviours, and Obesity Risk in Adults: A Review of Reviews Curr Obes Rep doi:10.1007/s13679-017-0256-9  

Biddle SJH, Bengoechea EG, Wiesner G (2017) Sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth: a systematic review of reviews and analysis of causality. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. doi: 10.1186/s12966-017-0497-8 http://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12966-017-0497-8

Biddle, S. J., Pearson, N., & Salmon, J. (2018). Sedentary behaviors and adiposity in young people: causality and conceptual model. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 46(1), 18-25. [full text]

Biswas, A., Oh, P. I., Faulkner, G. E., Bajaj, R. R., Silver, M. A., Mitchell, M. S., & Alter, D. A. (2015). Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(2), 123-132. http://annals.org/aim/article/2091327/sedentary-time-its-association-risk-disease-incidence-mortality-hospitalization-adults

Booth, F. W., Roberts, C. K., & Laye, M. J. (2012). Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Comprehensive Physiology. 2:1143–1211. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23798298

image from Booth et al (2017)

Booth, F. W., Roberts, C. K., Thyfault, J. P., Ruegsegger, G. N., & Toedebusch, R. G. (2017). Role of Inactivity in Chronic Diseases: Evolutionary Insight and Pathophysiological Mechanisms. Physiological Reviews, 97(4), 1351-1402. http://physrev.physiology.org/content/97/4/1351 

Børg, H. W. (2018). Exercise and Diet: Different Tools for Different Jobs. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, 23(4), 115-120. http://www.jpands.org/vol23no4/borg.pdf 

Bouchard, C., Blair, S. N., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2015, November). Less sitting, more physical activity, or higher fitness?. In Mayo Clinic proceedings (Vol. 90, No. 11, pp. 1533-1540). Elsevier.

Bouchard, C., Blair, S. N., Church, T. S., Earnest, C. P., Hagberg, J. M., Häkkinen, K., ... & Rankinen, T. (2012). Adverse metabolic response to regular exercise: is it a rare or common occurrence?. PloS one, 7(5), e37887. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037887 

Brannan, M.G.T. Foster, C.E. et al. (2019) Active 10 – a New Approach to Increase Physical Activity in Inactive People in England. Progress in Cardiovascular Disease. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2019.02.001 

Bredin, S. S., McKenzie, D. C., Stone, J., Shephard, R. J., & Gledhill, N. (2011). Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: an introduction Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 36(S1): S1-S2, https://doi.org/10.1139/h11-060 (Also see the rest of this edition which is all about screening prior to exercise)

British Heart Foundation National Centre for Physical Activity and Health (2010) Technical report: Physical Activity guidelines in the UK: review and recommendations Leicestershire, UK: School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University

Buchan, D. S., Ollis, S., Thomas, N. E., & Baker, J. S. (2012). Physical activity behaviour: an overview of current and emergent theoretical practices. Journal of Obesity, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3388376/

Buffart, L. M., Galvao, D. A., Brug, J., Chinapaw, M. J. M., & Newton, R. U. (2014). Evidence-based physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors: current guidelines, knowledge gaps and future research directions. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 40(2), 327-340.

Bull, F. C., & Bauman, A. E. (2011). Physical inactivity: the “Cinderella” risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention. Journal of health communication, 16(sup2), 13-26.

Bull, F. C., Milton, K., & Kahlmeier, S. (2014). National policy on physical activity: the development of a policy audit tool. Journal of physical activity & health, 11(2), 233-240.

Bull, F., Milton, K., Kahlmeier, S., Arlotti, A., Juričan, A. B., Belander, O., ... & Vlasveld, A. (2014). Turning the tide: national policy approaches to increasing physical activity in seven European countries. British journal of sports medicine, bjsports-2013.

Cameron, C., Craig, C. L., Bull, F. C., & Bauman, A. (2007). Canada's physical activity guides: has their release had an impact? Can. J. Public Health 98 (Suppl. 2).

Campbell, J. P., & Turner, J. E. (2018). Debunking the myth of exercise-induced immune suppression: Redefining the impact of exercise on immunological Health Across the Lifespan. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 648. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00648 

Campbell, W.W., Kraus, W.E., Powell, K.E., Haskell, W.L., Janz, K.F., Jakicic, J.M., Troiano, R.P., Sprow K, Torres, A., Piercy, K.L., Bartlett, D.B. and 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2019) High-Intensity Interval Training for Cardiometabolic Disease Prevention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 51(6):1220-1226. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001934

Candio, P., Meads, D., Hill, A. J., & Bojke, L. (2020). Modelling the impact of physical activity on public health: A review and critique. Health Policy, 124(10), 1155-1164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2020.07.015

Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., and Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep. 100, 126–131 

Celis-Morales, C. A., Welsh, P., Lyall, D. M., Steell, L., Petermann, F., Anderson, J., ... & Pell, J. P. (2018). Associations of grip strength with cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer outcomes and all cause mortality: prospective cohort study of half a million UK Biobank participants. BMJ, 361, k1651.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k1651 

Chakravarty, E. F., Hubert, H. B., Lingala, V. B., Zatarain, E., & Fries, J. F. (2008). Long distance running and knee osteoarthritis: a prospective study. American journal of preventive medicine, 35(2), 133-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.amepre.2008.03.032  

Chastin, S. F. M., McGregor, D., Biddle, S. J. H., Cardon, G., Chaput, J. P., Dall, P. M., ... & van der Ploeg, H. (2021). Striking the right balance: evidence to inform combined physical activity and sedentary behaviour recommendations. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0635 

Chau, J. Y., McGill, B., Thomas, M. M., Carroll, T. E., Bellew, W., Bauman, A., & Grunseit, A. C. (2018). Is this health campaign really social marketing? A checklist to help you decide. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 29(1), 79-83.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.13 

Cheval, B., Radel, R., Neva, J. L., Boyd, L. A., Swinnen, S. P., Sander, D., & Boisgontier, M. P. (2018). Behavioral and neural evidence of the rewarding value of exercise behaviors: a systematic review. Sports Medicine, 48(6), 1389-1404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0898-0 

Chief Medical Officers for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales (2011) Start Active, Stay Active: A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. London: Crown. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-physical-activity-guidelines

Churchward-Venne, T. A., Tieland, M., Verdijk, L. B., Leenders, M., Dirks, M. L., de Groot, L. C., & Van Loon, L. J. (2015). There are no nonresponders to resistance-type exercise training in older men and women. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(5), 400-411. http://www.jamda.com/article/S1525-8610(15)00072-9/abstract

Coenen, P., Huysmans, M. A., Holtermann, A., Krause, N., Van Mechelen, W., Straker, L. M., & Van Der Beek, A. J. (2018). Do highly physically active workers die early? A systematic review with meta-analysis of data from 193 696 participants. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(20), 1320-1326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098540  

Condello et al (2017) Behavioral determinants of physical activity across the life course: a “DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity” (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(58) https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12966-017-0510-2 

De Cocker, K, Teychenne, M. White, R.L., Bennie, J. (2020) Adherence to aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercise guidelines and associations with psychological distress: A cross-sectional study of 14,050 English adults. Preventive Medicine Volume 139, October 2020, 106192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106192 

De Cocker, K., Biddle, S. J. H., Teychenne, M. J., & Bennie, J. A. (2021). Is all activity equal? Associations between different domains of physical activity and depressive symptom severity among 261,121 European adults. Depression Anxiety, 38, 950– 960. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23157 

de Souto Barreto, P. (2015). Time to challenge public health guidelines on physical activity. Sports Medicine, 45(6), 769-773. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-015-0326-7 

de Souto Barreto, P. (2015). Global health agenda on non-communicable diseases: has WHO set a smart goal for physical activity?. BMJ, 15. http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h23?sso=

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Mama, S. K., Soltero, E. G., & Joseph, R. P. (2023). Reducing Sedentary Behavior and Increasing Physical Activity Among Low Active, Underserved Adults: A Staircase Approach. Journal of Physical Activity and Health https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2023-0171 

Mandolesi, L., Polverino, A., Montuori, S., Foti, F., Ferraioli, G., Sorrentino, P., & Sorrentino, G. (2018). Effects of physical exercise on cognitive functioning and wellbeing: biological and psychological benefits. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 509. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00509 

Matthews, C. E., Troiano, R. P., Salerno, E. A., Berrigan, D., Patel, S. B., Shiroma, E. J., & Saint-Maurice, P. F. (2020). Exploration of Confounding Due to Poor Health in an Accelerometer-Mortality Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000002405 

Mauricio, V. G., Daniel, R., & Duque, G. (2024). Exercise as a therapeutic tool in age-related frailty and cardiovascular disease: challenges and strategies. Canadian Journal of Cardiology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2024.01.005 

Metcalf, B., Henley, W., & Wilkin, T. (2012). Effectiveness of intervention on physical activity of children: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials with objectively measured outcomes (EarlyBird 54). BMJ, 345.

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Mcleod, J. C., Stokes, T., & Phillips, S. M. (2019). Resistance Exercise Training as a Primary Countermeasure to Age-Related Chronic Disease. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 645. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00645

Mielke, G. I., Malta, D. C., Nunes, B. P., & Cairney, J. (2022). All are equal, but some are more equal than others: social determinants of leisure time physical activity through the lens of intersectionality. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12428-7 

Milton, K., & Bauman, A. (2015). A critical analysis of the cycles of physical activity policy in England. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 8.

Milton, K., Bull, F. C., & Bauman, A. (2010). Reliability and validity testing of a single-item physical activity measure. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports68395.

Milton, K., Macniven, R., & Bauman, A. (2014). Review of the epidemiological evidence for physical activity and health from low-and middle-income countries. Global Public Health, 9(4), 369-381.

Moe, B., Eilertsen, E., & Nilsen, T. I. (2013). The combined effect of leisure-time physical activity and diabetes on cardiovascular mortality. Diabetes Care, 36(3), 690-695. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/3/690.short

Moholdt, T., Wisløff, U., Lydersen, S., & Nauman, J. (2014). Current physical activity guidelines for health are insufficient to mitigate long-term weight gain: more data in the fitness versus fatness debate (The HUNT study, Norway). British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(20), 1489.

Montero, D., & Lundby, C. (2017). Refuting the myth of non‐response to exercise training:‘non‐responders’ do respond to higher dose of training. The Journal of physiology, 595(11), 3377-3387. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP274031 

Comparison of Exercise Guidelines from Leading Organisations 

[Table from Moore et al (2016: 16)]

Moore, G., Durstine, J. L., Painter, P., & American College of Sports Medicine. (2016). ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons With Chronic Diseases and Disabilities, 4E. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Moore, S. C., Patel, A. V., Matthews, C. E., de Gonzalez, A. B., Park, Y., Katki, H. A., ... & Thun, M. (2012). Leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity and mortality: a large pooled cohort analysis. PLoS Medicine, 9(11), e1001335.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001335

Moore, S. C., Lee, I. M., Weiderpass, E., Campbell, P. T., Sampson, J. N., Kitahara, C. M., ... & Patel, A. V. (2016). Association of leisure-time physical activity with risk of 26 types of cancer in 1.44 million adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(6), 816-825. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.1548 

Morris, J. N., Heady, J. A., Raffle, P. A. B., Roberts, C. G., & Parks, J. W. (1953). Coronary heart-disease and physical activity of work. The Lancet, 262(6796), 1111-1120.[full text]

Morris, J. N. (1994). Exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease: today's best buy in public health. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 26(7), 807-814.

Muilwijk, M., Nicolaou, M., Qureshi, S. A., Celis-Morales, C., Gill, J. M., Sheikh, A., ... & van Valkengoed, I. G. (2018). Dietary and physical activity recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes in South Asian adults: a systematic review. Plos one, 13(7), e0200681.

Murray, A., Calderwood, C., O'Connor, N., & Mutrie, N. (2016). Scotland's progress in putting policy about physical activity into practice. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports-2015.[fulltext]

Murphy, M. H., Lahart, I., Carlin, A., & Murtagh, E. (2019). The effects of continuous compared to accumulated exercise on health: A meta-analytic review. Sports Medicine, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01145-2 

Mutrie, N., Standage, M., Pringle, A. R., Smith, L., Strain, T., Kelly, P., ... & Colledge, N. (2018). UK physical activity guidelines: developing options for future communication and surveillance. http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/sps/documents/cmo/communication-surveillance-technical-report.pdf 

Newton, J. N., Briggs, A. D., Murray, C. J., Dicker, D., Foreman, K. J., Wang, H., ... & Vos, T. (2015). Changes in health in England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet, 386(10010), 2257-2274. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673615001956

Ng, S. W., & Popkin, B. M. (2012). Time use and physical activity: a shift away from movement across the globe. Obesity Reviews, 13(8), 659-680.

Nielsen, G., Wikman, J. M., Jensen, C. J., Schmidt, J. F., Gliemann, L., & Andersen, T. R. (2014). Health promotion: The impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 24(S1), 66-75. [full text]

NIHR (2019) Moving Matters: Interventions to increase physical activity doi 10.3310/themedreview-03898  

Nobles, J., Thomas, C., Banks Gross, Z., Hamilton, M., Trinder-Widdess, Z., Speed, C., ... & Redwood, S. (2020). “Let’s talk about physical activity”: understanding the preferences of under-served communities when messaging physical activity guidelines to the public. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(8), 2782. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082782 

Nocon, M., Hiemann, T., Müller-Riemenschneider, F., Thalau, F., Roll, S., & Willich, S. N. (2008). Association of physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 15(3), 239-246.

Noone, J., Mucinski, J. M., DeLany, J. P., Sparks, L. M., & Goodpaster, B. H. (2024). Understanding the variation in exercise responses to guide personalized physical activity prescriptions. Cell Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2023.12.025 

Norton, K., Norton, L., & Sadgrove, D. (2010). Position statement on physical activity and exercise intensity terminology. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(5), 496-502.[full text]

Nunan, D. (2016). Doctors should be able to prescribe exercise like a drug. BMJ, 353. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2468 

Nunan, D. (2023, December 7th) I love physical activity, but… Medium. https://dnunan79.medium.com/i-love-physical-activity-but-424fed2c5573 

O'Donovan, G., Lee, I. M., Stamatakis, E., & Hamer, M. (2017). The ‘weekend warrior’and other leisure-time physical activity patterns and the risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.8014 (also see Hamer et al, 2017)

O'Donovan, G., Blazevich, A. J., Boreham, C., Cooper, A. R., Crank, H., Ekelund, U., ... & Stamatakis, E. (2010). The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(6), 573-591.

Office for Health Improvement and Disparities and Department of Health and Social Care (2022) Physical activity in disabled children and disabled young people: evidence review. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/physical-activity-in-disabled-children-and-disabled-young-people-evidence-review 

Oja, P., Kelly, P., Pedisic, Z., Titze, S., Bauman, A., Foster, C., ... & Stamatakis, E. (2016). Associations of specific types of sports and exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular-disease mortality: a cohort study of 80 306 British adults. British Journal of Sports Medicine, http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/10/812

Oja, P., Bull, F. C., Fogelholm, M., & Martin, B. W. (2010). Physical activity recommendations for health: what should Europe do?. BMC Public Health, 10(1), 10.[full text]

Paffenbarger, R. S., Gima, A. S., Laughlin, E., & Black, R. A. (1971). Characteristics of longshoremen related fatal coronary heart disease and stroke. American Journal of Public |Health, 61(7), 1362-1370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1529748/pdf/amjph00742-0089.pdf 

Paffenbarger Jr, R. S., Hyde, R., Wing, A. L., & Hsieh, C. C. (1986). Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New England Journal of Medicine, 314(10), 605-613. www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM198603063141003 

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Paluch, A. E., Bajpai, S., Bassett, D. R., Carnethon, M. R., Ekelund, U., Evenson, K. R., ... & Fulton, J. E. (2022). Daily steps and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of 15 international cohorts. The Lancet Public Health, 7(3), e219-e228. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00302-9 

Pate, R. R., Pratt, M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., ... & Wilmore, J. H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Jama, 273(5), 402-407.

Paterson, D. H., & Warburton, D. E. (2010). Review Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(38), 1-22.

Payne, S., Townsend, N., & Foster, C. (2013). The physical activity profile of active children in England. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-136  

Pedersen, B. K., & Saltin, B. (2015). Exercise as medicine–evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 25(S3), 1-72. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sms.12581/full

Perrin, C., & Steele, J. (2018, November 28). Determining causality in epidemiology: Why observational studies can be misleading and the case for experiments. https://doi.org/10.31236/osf.io/9q5hm  

Pharr, J. R., Terencio, M. A. M., & Bungum, T. (2020). Physical Activity Guidelines Compliance and Its Relationship With Preventative Health Behaviors and Risky Health Behaviors. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 17(10), 1003-1008. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0039 

Phillips, B. E., Kelly, B. M., Lilja, M., Ponce-González, J. G., Brogan, R. J., Morris, D. L., ... & Rooyackers, O. (2017). A Practical and Time-efficient high-intensity interval Training Program Modifies cardio-Metabolic risk Factors in adults with risk Factors for Type ii Diabetes. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8, 229. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2017.00229

Phillips, S. M., Ma, J. K., & Rawson, E. S. (2023). The Coming of Age of Resistance Exercise as a Primary Form of Exercise for Health. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal, 27(6), 19-25. https://doi.org/10.1249/fit.0000000000000916 

Phillips, S.M. and Joyner, M.J. (2018) Out-running ‘bad’ diets: beyond weight loss there is clear evidence of the benefits of physical activity Br J Sports Med http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-100226  

Pickering, C., & Kiely, J. (2018). Do Non-Responders to Exercise Exist—and If So, What Should We Do About Them?. Sports Medicine, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-01041-1   

Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, et al. (2018) The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.14854  

Piggin, J. (2020). What is physical activity? A holistic definition for teachers, researchers and policy makers. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2, 72. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00072 

Pogrmilovic, B. K., O’Sullivan, G., Milton, K., Biddle, S. J., & Pedisic, Z. (2019). A systematic review of instruments for the analysis of national-level physical activity and sedentary behaviour policies. Health research policy and systems, 17(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-019-0492-4 

Polster, M., Dooley, E. E., Olscamp, K., Piercy, K. L., & Oh, A. (2021). Responses to the Physical Activity Guidelines and Dissemination Strategies for Behavior Change in a Representative Sample of US Adults, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 18(11), 1342-1351. https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/jpah/18/11/article-p1342.xml 

Powell, K. E., Paluch, A. E., & Blair, S. N. (2011). Physical activity for health: What kind? How much? How intense? On top of what?. Public Health, 32(1), 349.

Pratt, M., Norris, J., Lobelo, F., Roux, L., & Wang, G. (2014). The cost of physical inactivity: moving into the 21st century. British Journal of sports medicine, 48(3), 171-173.

Pratt, M., Sarmiento, O. L., Montes, F., Ogilvie, D., Marcus, B. H., Perez, L. G., ... & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity. The Lancet, 380(9838), 282-293. [full text]

Przybylski, A. K., Orben, A., & Weinstein, N. (2020). How much is too much? Examining the relationship between digital screen engagement and psychosocial functioning in a confirmatory cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(9), 1080-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.06.017 

Ramírez Varela, A., Cruz, G. I. N., Hallal, P., Blumenberg, C., da Silva, S. G., Salvo, D., ... & Pratt, M. (2021). Global, regional, and national trends and patterns in physical activity research since 1950: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01071-x 

Ramos, J. S., Dalleck, L. C., Tjonna, A. E., Beetham, K. S., & Coombes, J. S. (2015). The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 45(5), 679-692. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-015-0321-z

Ratner, R. K., & Riis, J. (2014). Communicating science-based recommendations with memorable and actionable guidelines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(Supplement 4), 13634-13641. http://www.pnas.org/content/111/Supplement_4/13634.full.pdf 

Ray, B. M., Kelleran, K. J., Eubanks, J. E., Nan, N., Ma, C., & Miles, D. (2022). The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Pain in US Adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 55(3):497-506  https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000003078 

Reid, H., Ridout, A. J., Tomaz, S. A., Kelly, P., & Jones, N. (2021). Benefits outweigh the risks: a consensus statement on the risks of physical activity for people living with long-term conditions. British Journal of Sports Medicine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104281  

Reiner, M., Niermann, C., Jekauc, D., & Woll, A. (2013). Long-term health benefits of physical activity–a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 813. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-813 

Riebe, D., Franklin, B. A., Thompson, P. D., Garber, C. E., Whitfield, G. P., Magal, M., & Pescatello, L. S. (2015). Updating ACSM’s recommendations for exercise preparticipation health screening. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47(11), 2473-9.[full text]

Rhodes, R. E., Janssen, I., Bredin, S. S., Warburton, D. E., & Bauman, A. (2017). Physical activity: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. Psychology & Health, 1-34. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08870446.2017.1325486 

Rhodes, R. E., Lubans, D. R., Karunamuni, N., Kennedy, S., & Plotnikoff, R. (2017). Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/early/2017/04/12/bjsports-2016-096950 

Robertson-Wilson, J., & Fortier, M. (2017). Exercise is...?: A commentary response. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 6(1), 52-53. http://jshs.org.cn/EN/article/downloadArticleFile.do?attachType=PDF&id=411 

Rock, C. L., Doyle, C., Demark‐Wahnefried, W., Meyerhardt, J., Courneya, K. S., Schwartz, A. L., ... & Gansler, T. (2012). Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 62(4), 242-274.

Ross, L. M., Porter, R. R., & Durstine, J. L. (2016). High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(2), 139-144.

Ross, R., Chaput, J. P., Giangregorio, L. M., Janssen, I., Saunders, T. J., Kho, M. E., ... & Tremblay, M. S. (2020). Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 45(10), S57-S102. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0467 

Rynecki, N. D., Siracuse, B. L., Ippolito, J. A., & Beebe, K. S. (2019). Injuries sustained during high intensity interval training: are modern fitness trends contributing to increased injury rates?. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 59(7), 1206-1212. DOI: 10.23736/s0022-4707.19.09407-6  

Samitz, G., Egger, M., & Zwahlen, M. (2011). Domains of physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies. International journal of epidemiology, 40(5), 1382-1400.

Sanchis-Gomar, F., Pérez, L. M., Joyner, M. J., Löllgen, H., & Lucia, A. (2016). Endurance Exercise and the Heart: Friend or Foe?. Sports Medicine, 1-8. [abstract]

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Sawatzky, R., Liu-Ambrose, T., Miller, W. C., & Marra, C. A. (2007). Physical activity as a mediator of the impact of chronic conditions on quality of life in older adults. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5(1), 68. https://hqlo.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7525-5-68

Schoenfeld, B., & Dawes, J. (2009). High-intensity interval training: Applications for general fitness training. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 31(6), 44-46.

Sedentary Behaviour Research Network. (2012) Letter to the editor: standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviours”. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 37(3):540–2 DOI: 10.1139/h2012-024

Sesso, H. D., Paffenbarger, R. S., & Lee, I. M. (2000). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Circulation, 102(9), 975-980.

Shephard, R. J. (2003). Limits to the measurement of habitual physical activity by questionnaires. British journal of sports medicine, 37(3), 197-206.

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Further Resources

WHO (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. [full text]
The National Physical Activity Plan Alliance hosted an informational webinar about the updated Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans on November 13th, 2018.  Watch it above or find where it is posted online.

Belluz, J. & Zarracina, J. (2016) Why you shouldn't exercise to lose weight, explained with 60+ studies [available at http://www.vox.com/2016/4/28/11518804/weight-loss-exercise-myth-burn-calories]

Cheng, S. (2018) How sure are we that physical activity makes us live longer? http://blogs.bmj.com/bjsm/2018/03/20/how-sure-are-we-that-physical-activity-makes-us-live-longer/ 

The USA PA GuIdelines (Nov, 2018) - Publications and resources related to the US PAGs - see Piercy et al (2018)

The Australian PA Guidelines (2014)

The German Guidelines (2016) [pdf]

Canadian PAG research - 2020 - https://cdnsciencepub.com/toc/apnm/45/10+%28Suppl.+2%29 

Canadian Guidelines: Ross, R., Chaput, J. P., Giangregorio, L. M., Janssen, I., Saunders, T. J., Kho, M. E., ... & Tremblay, M. S. (2020). Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 45(10), S57-S102. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0467 

New Zealand PA Guidelines (children's updated May 2017 to include sleep)

Find out more about the development of the 2019 UK PAG review here - Final Working Group papers

The Global Energy Balance Network [Wikipedia]

University of Minnesota Resource - A History of Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology

Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report. Part G. Section 10: Adverse Events

https://health.gov/paguidelines/report/g10_adverse.aspx 

Physical activity in the treatment of long term conditions - BMJ Learning module

CDC (2015) How much physical activity do children need?

The latest from the WHO consultation on a global action plan for PA