Exercise Referral/Chronic Conditions


Key Publications

Overview Presentation

Specific Conditions

Other Content
Further Reading: Textbooks

American College of Sports Medicine (2009) ACSM's exercise management for persons with chronic diseases and disabilities (3rd Ed) Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics 

Buckley, J. (Ed) (2008) Exercise Physiology in Special Populations. Oxford; Elsevier. 

Ehrman, J., Gordon, P., Visich, P.S., Keteyianby, S. (2009) Clinical Exercise Physiology (2nd Ed). Champaign IL: Human Kinetics [google books

Lawrence, D (2013) Exercise Referral Schemes. London: Bloomsbury 

Swain, D.P. & Leutholtz, B.C. (2007) Exercise Prescription: A case study approach to the ACSM Guidelines (2nd Ed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. [google books

Williamson, P. (2011) Exercise for Special Populations Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins [google books

Further Reading: Journal Articles 

American College of Sports Medicine (2010) ACSM Position Stand ‘‘Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes’’ Med Sci Sports Exerc. 42(1 2): 2282-2303 [full text

Anokye, N.K., Trueman, P., Green, C. Pavey, T., Hillsdon, M., Taylor, R.S. (2011) The cost-effectiveness of exercise referral schemes BMC Public Health, 11:954 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-954 [full text

AuYoung, M., Linke, S. E., Pagoto, S., Buman, M. P., Craft, L. L., Richardson, C. R., ... & Gorin, S. S. (2016). Integrating physical activity in primary care practice. The American journal of medicine, 129(10), 1022-1029.

Beedie, C., Mann, S., Domone, S., & Wade, M. (2016). Combining supervised exercise and physical activity counselling might increase retention to GP exercise referral programmes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE), 48(5S (S1)), 79-80.

Biddle, S., Mutrie, N., & Gorely, T. (2015). Psychology of Physical Activity: Determinants, Well-Being and Interventions. Oxon: Routledge [full text

Biddle, S.J., Fox, K.R. & Edmunds, L. (1994) Physical activity promotion in primary health care in England. London: Health Education Authority. 

Department of Health (2007) Best practice guidance: statement on Exercise Referral. Gateway Reference 7930 London: Department of Health. 

De Lyon, A. T., Neville, R. D., & Armour, K. M. (2017). The role of fitness professionals in public health: a review of the literature. Quest, 69(3), 313-330.

Duda, J. L., Williams, G. C., Ntoumanis, N., Daley, A., Eves, F. F., Mutrie, N., ... & Jolly, K. (2014). Effects of a standard provision versus an autonomy supportive exercise referral programme on physical activity, quality of life and well-being indicators: a cluster randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 10.

Duda, J. L., Williams, G. C., Ntoumanis, N., Daley, A., Eves, F. F., Mutrie, N., ... & Jolly, K. (2014). Effects of a standard provision versus an autonomy supportive exercise referral programme on physical activity, quality of life and well-being indicators: a cluster randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 10.[full text

Edmunds, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2007). Adherence and well-being in overweight and obese patients referred to an exercise on prescription scheme: A self-determination theory perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(5), 722-740. [full text

Graham, R.C., Dugdill, L. and Cable, N.T. (2005) Health Professionals perspectives in exercise referral: implications for the referral process. Ergonomics, 48 (11-14):1411-1422.[abstract

Gidlow, C., Johnston, L.H., Crone, D., Morris, C., Smith, A., Foster, C., James, D.V.B. (2007) Socio-demographic patterning of referral, upake and attendance in Physical Activity Referral Schemes. Journal of Public Health 29(2): 107-13. [full text

Hanson, C. L., Allin, L. J., Ellis, J. G., & Dodd-Reynolds, C. J. (2013). An evaluation of the efficacy of the exercise on referral scheme in Northumberland, UK: association with physical activity and predictors of engagement. A naturalistic observation study. BMJ open, 3(8).[full text

Halbert, J.A., Silagy, C.A., Finucane, P.M., Withers, R.T. & Hamdorf, P.A. (2000) Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors: effect of advice from an exercise specialist in Australian general practice. Medical Journal of Australia, 173 (2): 84-87 

Harrison, R.A., McNair, F. Dugdill, L. (2005) Access to exercise referral schemes-a population based analysis. Journal of Public Health Medicine 27(4): 326-330 [full text

James,D.V.B., Johnston, L.H., Crone, D., Sidford, A.H., Gidlow, C., Morris, C., Foster, C. (2008) Factors associated with physical activity referral uptake and participation Journal of Sports Sciences Vol. 26, No. 2, 217-224 [abstract

Leijon, Bendtsen, Ståhle, A., Ekberg, K., Festin, K. and Nilsen, P. (2010 Factors associated with patients self-reported adherence to prescribed physical activity in routine primary health care. BMC Family Practice 2010, 11:38 [full text

Leenaars, K. E. F., Smit, E., Wagemakers, A., Molleman, G. R. M., & Koelen, M. A. (2015). Facilitators and barriers in the collaboration between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity: a systematic literature review. Preventive medicine, 81, 460-478.

MacAuley, D., Bauman, A., & Frémont, P. (2016). Exercise: not a miracle cure, just good medicine. Br J Sports Med, 50(18), 1107-1108.

Morgan, O. (2005) Approaches to increase physical activity: reviewing the evidence for exercise-referral schemes. Public Health; 119(5):361-370. 

Murphy, S. M., Edwards, R. T., Williams, N., Raisanen, L., Moore, G., Linck, P., ... & Moore, L. (2012). An evaluation of the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales, UK: a randomised controlled trial of a public health policy initiative. J Epidemiol Community Health, 66(8), 745-753.http://jech.bmj.com/content/66/8/745 

Naci, H., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Comparative effectiveness of exercise and drug interventions on mortality outcomes: metaepidemiological study. BMJ, 347, f5577.

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2006) Four commonly used methods to increase physical activity: Brief interventions in primary care, exercise referral schemes, pedometers and community-based exercise programmes for walking and cycling. Public Health Intervention Guidance no2. London: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence.[full text

Normansell, R., Smith, J., Victor, C., Cook, D. G., Kerry, S., Iliffe, S., ... & Harris, T. (2014). Numbers are not the whole story: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to increased physical activity in a primary care based walking intervention. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1272.

Olsson, S. J., Börjesson, M., Ekblom-Bak, E., Hemmingsson, E., Hellénius, M. L., & Kallings, L. V. (2015). Effects of the Swedish physical activity on prescription model on health-related quality of life in overweight older adults: a randomised controlled trial. BMC public health, 15(1), 687.

Orrow, G., Kinmonth, A. L., Sanderson, S., & Sutton, S. (2012). Effectiveness of physical activity promotion based in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ, 344, e1389.

Pavey, T.G., Taylor, A.H., Fox, K.R., et al (2011) Effect of exercise referral schemes in primary care on physical activity and improving health outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis BMJ Vol. 343:d6462 [full text

Pavey, T.G., Anokye, N., Taylor, A.H., Trueman, P., Moxham, T., Fox, K.R., et al. (2011) The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise referral schemes: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 15(44) [full text

Pavey, T., Taylor, A., Hillsdon, M., Fox, K., Campbell, J., Foster, C., ... & Taylor, R. (2012). Levels and predictors of exercise referral scheme uptake and adherence: a systematic review. Journal of epidemiology and community health, jech-2011.[researchgate

Riddoch, C., Puig-Ribera, A. & Cooper, A. (1998). Effectiveness of physical activity promotion schemes in primary care: a review. London: HEA.[full text

Rouse, P. C., Ntoumanis, N., Duda, J. L., Jolly, K., & Williams, G. C. (2011) In the beginning: Role of autonomy support on the motivation, mental health and intentions of participants entering an exercise referral scheme. Psychology and Health. Vol. 26, No.6, 729-749 [full text

Slade, S. C., & Keating, J. L. (2011). Exercise prescription: a case for standardised reporting. British journal of sports medicine, 1–6. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090290 [full text

Sowden, S.L., Raine, R. (2008) Running along parallel lines: how political reality impedes the evaluation of public health interventions. A case study of exercise referral schemes in England J Epidemiol Community Health;62:835-841 [abstract] [phd thesis

Speake, H., Copeland, R. J., Till, S. H., Breckon, J. D., Haake, S., & Hart, O. (2016). Embedding physical activity in the heart of the NHS: the need for a whole-system approach. Sports Medicine, 46(7), 939-946.[full text]

Taylor, A.H, Doust, J. & Webborn, N. (1998) Randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of a GP exercise referral programme in Hailsham, East Sussex, on modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 52 (2): 595-601 

Thornton, J. S., Frémont, P., Khan, K., Poirier, P., Fowles, J., Wells, G. D., & Frankovich, R. J. (2016). Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(18), 1109-1114. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/18/110 

Waterman, M. R., Wiecha, J. M., Manne, J., Tringale, S. M., Costa, E., & Wiecha, J. L. (2014). Utilization of a free fitness center-based exercise referral program among women with chronic disease risk factors. Journal of community health, 39(6), 1179-1185.

Williams, N.H. (2011) Promoting physical activity in primary care BMJ 2011;343:d6615 [editorial

Williams, N.H., Hendry, M. France, B Lewis, R. Wilkinson, C (2007) Effectiveness of exercise-referral schemes to promote physical activity in adults: systematic review Br J Gen Pract. 57(545): 979–986.[full text

Woolf-May, Bird, S.R. (2006) Exercise Prescription: Physiological foundations: A guide for health, sport and exercise professionals. London: Churchill Livingstone [google books

Wormald, H. & Ingle, L. (2004) GP exercise referral schemes: Improving the patient’s experience. Health Education Journal, 63 (4):362-373. (abstract)