Type 1 Diabetes

Click here to see a resource page for patients on our OneLife T1D exercise referral scheme

Key reading

Chimen, M., Kennedy, A., Nirantharakumar, K., Pang, T. T., Andrews, R., & Narendran, P. (2012). What are the health benefits of physical activity in type 1 diabetes mellitus? A literature review. Diabetologia, 55(3), 542-551. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-011-2403-2

Codella, R., Terruzzi, I., & Luzi, L. (2017). Why should people with type 1 diabetes exercise regularly?. Acta Diabetologica, 1-16. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00592-017-0978-x

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, et al (2016) Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 39:2065–2079. doi: 10.2337/dc16-1728

Colberg SR (2017) Key Points from the Updated Guidelines on Exercise and Diabetes. Front Endocrinol 8:33. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00033

Galassetti, P., & Riddell, M. C. (2013). Exercise and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Comprehensive Physiology. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cphy.c110040/abstract 

Riddell MC, Gallen IW, Smart CE, et al (2017) Exercise management in type 1 diabetes: a consensus statement. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 8587:1–14. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30014-1

Pinsker JE, Kraus A, Gianferante D, et al (2016) Techniques for Exercise Preparation and Management in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes. Can J Diabetes 40:503–508. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2016.04.010




Further Reading

Ahola AJ, Saraheimo M, Freese R, et al (2016) Fear of hypoglycaemia and self-management in type 1 diabetes. J Clin Transl Endocrinol 4:13–18. doi: 10.1016/j.jcte.2016.02.002

Al Khalifah RA, Suppère C, Haidar A, et al (2016) Association of aerobic fitness level with exercise-induced hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 33:1686–1690. doi: 10.1111/dme.13070

Anderbro T, Amsberg S, Adamson U, et al (2010) Fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 27:1151–1158. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03078.x

Atkinson M, Eisenbarth GS, Michels AW (2014) Type 1 diabetes. Lancet 383:69–82. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60591-7

Barnard KD, Lloyd CE, Skinner TC (2007) Systematic literature review: Quality of life associated with insulin pump use in type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 24:607–617. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02120.x

Bastiaens H, Sunaert P, Wens J, et al (2009) Supporting diabetes self-management in primary care: Pilot-study of a group-based programme focusing on diet and exercise. Prim Care Diabetes 3:103–109. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2009.02.001

Bode BW, Kaufman FR, Vint N (2017) An Expert Opinion on Advanced Insulin Pump Use in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 19:dia.2016.0354. doi: 10.1089/dia.2016.0354

Böhme P, Bertin E, Cosson E, et al (2013) Fear of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes: Do patients and diabetologists feel the same way? Diabetes Metab 39:63–70. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2012.10.006

Bohn B, Herbst A, Pfeifer M, et al (2015) Impact of Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of 18,028 Patients. Diabetes Care 38:1536–1543. doi: 10.2337/dc15-0030

Bott U, Mühlhauser I, Overmann H, Berger M (1998) Validation of a diabetes-specific quality-of-life scale for patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 21:757–769. doi: 10.2337/diacare.21.5.757

Brazeau A-S, Gingras V, Leroux C, et al (2014) A pilot program for physical exercise promotion in adults with type 1 diabetes: the PEP-1 program. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 39:465–471. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2013-0287

Brazeau A-S, Mircescu H, Desjardins K, et al (2012) The Barriers to Physical Activity in Type 1 Diabetes (BAPAD-1) scale: Predictive validity and reliability. Diabetes Metab 38:164–170. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2011.10.005

Brazeau A-S, Strychar I, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Mircescu H (2008) Barriers to Physical Activity Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 31:2108–2109. doi: 10.2337/dc08-0720.

Cherrington A, Martin MY, Hayes M, et al (2012) Intervention mapping as a guide for the development of a diabetes peer support intervention in rural Alabama. Prev Chronic Dis 9:E36. doi: 10.5888/pcd9.110053

Chiang JL, Kirkman MS, Laffel LMB, Peters AL (2014) Type 1 Diabetes Through the Life Span: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 37:2034–2054. doi: 10.2337/dc14-1140

Chimen M, Kennedy A, Nirantharakumar K, et al (2012) What are the health benefits of physical activity in type 1 diabetes mellitus? A literature review. Diabetologia 55:542–551. doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2403-2

Codella R, Terruzzi I, Luzi L (2017) Why should people with type 1 diabetes exercise regularly? Acta Diabetol. doi: 10.1007/s00592-017-0978-x

Colberg SR (2017) Key Points from the Updated Guidelines on Exercise and Diabetes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 8:33. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00033

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, et al (2016) Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 39:2065–2079. doi: 10.2337/dc16-1728

Dubé M-C, Valois P, Prud’homme D, et al (2006) Physical activity barriers in diabetes: Development and validation of a new scale. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 72:20–27. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2005.08.008

Franciosi M, Maione A, Pomili B, et al (2010) Correlates of quality of life in adults with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin injection. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20:7–14. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2009.02.012

Frier B, Heller SR, McCrimmon RJ (eds) (2014) Hypoglycaemia in Clinical Diabetes. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex Galassetti, P., & Riddell, M. C. (2013). Exercise and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Comprehensive Physiology.

Häyrinen M, Tarkka IM (2016) Physical activity does not inevitably improve quality of life in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 121:99–101. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2016.09.010

Heinemann L, Fleming GA, Petrie JR, et al (2015) Insulin Pump Risks and Benefits: A Clinical Appraisal of Pump Safety Standards, Adverse Event Reporting, and Research Needs. Diabetes Care 38:dc150168. doi: 10.2337/dc15-0168

Jankovec Z, Krcma M, Gruberova J, et al (2011) Influence of Physical Activity on Metabolic State Within a 3-h Interruption of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 13:1234–1239. doi: 10.1089/dia.2011.0121

Kennedy A, Nirantharakumar K, Chimen M, et al (2013) Does Exercise Improve Glycaemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058861

Lascar N, Kennedy A, Hancock B, et al (2014) Attitudes and Barriers to Exercise in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) and How Best to Address Them: A Qualitative Study. PLoS One 9:e108019. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108019

Lascar N, Kennedy A, Jackson N, et al (2013) Exercise to preserve beta cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (EXTOD)--a study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials 14:180. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-180

Martyn-Nemeth P, Schwarz Farabi S, Mihailescu D, et al (2016) Fear of hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes: Impact of therapeutic advances and strategies for prevention - A review. J Diabetes Complications 30:167–177. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.09.003

Matthews L, Kirk A, Mutrie N (2014) Insight from health professionals on physical activity promotion within routine diabetes care. Pract Diabetes 31:111–116e. doi: 10.1002/pdi.1844

McAuley SA, Horsburgh JC, Ward GM, et al (2016) Insulin pump basal adjustment for exercise in type 1 diabetes: a randomised crossover study. Diabetologia 59:1636–1644. doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-3981-9

McCarthy MM, Whittemore R, Gholson G, Grey M (2017) Self-management of physical activity in adults with type 1 diabetes. Appl Nurs Res 35:18–23. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2017.02.010

McCarthy MM, Whittemore R, Grey M (2016) Physical Activity in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Educ 42:108–115. doi: 10.1177/0145721715620021

Morrison G, Weston P (2013) Self-efficacy: A tool for people with diabetes managed by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. J Diabetes Nurs 17:32–37.

Ozcan S, Amiel S a, Rogers H, et al (2014) Poorer glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes is associated with reduced self-management and poorer perceived health: a cross-sectional study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 106:35–41. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.07.023

Patel NS, Van Name MA, Cengiz E, et al (2016) Mitigating Reductions in Glucose During Exercise on Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery: The Ex-Snacks Study. Diabetes Technol Ther 18:794–799. doi: 10.1089/dia.2016.0311

Pinsker JE, Kraus A, Gianferante D, et al (2016) Techniques for Exercise Preparation and Management in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes. Can J Diabetes 40:503–508. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2016.04.010

Plotnikoff RC, Lippke S, Reinbold-Matthews M, et al (2007) Assessing the validity of a stage measure on physical activity in a population-based sample of individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci 11:73–91.

Plotnikoff RC, Lippke S, Trinh L, et al (2010) Protection motivation theory and the prediction of physical activity among adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in a large population sample. Br J Heal Pschology 15:643–661. doi: 10.1348/135910709X478826

Riddell MC, Gallen IW, Smart CE, et al (2017) Exercise management in type 1 diabetes: a consensus statement. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 8587:1–14. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30014-1

Ryan C (2011) Fear of hypoglycemia: Commentary. Diabet Hypoglycemia 4:17–18. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12491

Speight J, Holmes-Truscott E, Harvey DM, et al (2016) Structured type 1 diabetes education delivered in routine care in Australia reduces diabetes-related emergencies and severe diabetes-related distress: The OzDAFNE program. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 112:65–72. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.11.002

Steineck I, Cederholm J, Eliasson B, et al (2015) Insulin pump therapy, multiple daily injections, and cardiovascular mortality in 18 168 people with type 1 diabetes: observational study. Britiish Med J 350:h3234–h3234. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h3234

Thorpe CT, Fahey LE, Johnson H, et al (2012) Facilitating Healthy Coping in Patients With Diabetes: A Systematic Review. Diabetes Educ. doi: 10.1177/0145721712464400

Tikkanen-Dolenc H, Wadén J, Forsblom C, et al (2016) Frequent and intensive physical activity reduces risk of cardiovascular events in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 1–7. doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4189-8

Withall J, Jago R, Fox KR (2011) Why some do but most don’t. Barriers and enablers to engaging low-income groups in physical activity programmes: a mixed methods study. BMC Public Health 11:507. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-507

Yardley JE, Hay J, Abou-Setta AM, et al (2014) A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise interventions in adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 106:393–400. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.09.038

Yardley JE, Iscoe KE, Sigal RJ, et al (2013) Insulin pump therapy is associated with less post-exercise hyperglycemia than multiple daily injections: an observational study of physically active type 1 diabetes patients. Diabetes Technol Ther 15:84–8. doi: 10.1089/dia.2012.0168

Yardley JE, Sigal RJ, Perkins BA, et al (2013) Resistance exercise in type 1 diabetes. Can J Diabetes 37:420–426. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2013.07.020

Yardley JE, Zaharieva DP, Jarvis C, Riddell MC (2015) The “Ups” and “Downs” of a Bike Race in People with Type 1 Diabetes: Dramatic Differences in Strategies and Blood Glucose Responses in the Paris-to-Ancaster Spring Classic. Can J Diabetes 39:105–110. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2014.09.003