Key Reading

Kenney, W. L., Wilmore, J., & Costill, D. (2015). Physiology of Sport and Exercise (6th Ed.) Human kinetics

Further Resources
  • Click here for article on Energy Systems
  • Click here for article on Lactic acid
  • Click here for a maximal oxygen uptake primer
  • Lactic Acid Accumulation [animation]
  • Key Terms - Energy Systems

Further Reading

Achten, J., Gleeson, M. and Jeukendrup, A. E.  (2002) Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Med.Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 92–97. [full text]

Astrand, P.-O., Rodahl, K., Dahl, H., Stromme, S. (2003) Textbook of work physiology (4th Ed) Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics. [google books]
Baechle, T.R., Earle, R.W. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd Ed.) National Strength and Conditioning Association. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. Ch21, p 21-40.


Billat, V., Lepretre, P.-M., Heugas, A.-M., Laurence, M.-H., Salim, D. and Koralsztein, J. P.. (2003) Training and Bioenergetic Characteristics in Elite Male and Female Kenyan Runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,35(2)  297–304,.[full text]


Brooks, G. A. (2000) Intra- and extra-cellular lactate shuttles. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 32(4) 790–799 [full text]


Burnley, M. and Jones, A.M. (2007) Oxygen uptake kinetics as a determinant of sports performance, European Journal of Sport Science, Vol. 7, No. 2, 63 – 79 [full text]


Gibala, M.J., and Mcgee, S.L. (2008) Metabolic Adaptations to Short-term High-Intensity Interval Training: A Little Pain for a Lot of Gain? Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 36, No. 2, 58-63 [full text]


Heyward, V.H. (2010) Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription (6th Ed.)  Champaign IL: Human Kinetics..[google books] [companion website]


Kraemer, W., Fleck, S. and Deschenes, M. (2011) Exercise Physiology: Integrating Theory and Application Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins


Lamb, D., Stephenson, D.G., Bangsbo, J. and Juel, C. (2006) Point:Counterpoint: Lactic acid accumulation is an advantage/disadvantage during muscle activity J Appl Physiol 100:1410-1412 [full text]


McArdle , W.D., Katch, F.I., & Katch, V.L. (2010) Exercise Physiology: - Nutrition, Energy and Human Performance. (7th ed) Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Morton, R.H.(2006)The critical power and related whole-body bioenergetic models Eur J Appl Physiol 96: 339–354 [full text]


Powers, S.K. (2009) Exercise physiology: theory and application to fitness and performance. McGraw-Hill

Robergs, R.A., Ghiasvand, F. and Parker.D. (2004) Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287: R502–R516 [full text]


Selivanov, V.A., de Atauri, P., Centelles, J.J., Cadefau, J., Parra, J., Cusso, R., Carreras, J., Cascante, M. (2008) The changes in the energy metabolism of human muscle induced by training Journal of Theoretical Biology 252, 402–410 [full text]


Spencer, M.R. & Gastin B. (2001) Energy system contribution during 200- to 1500-m running in highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc.Vol.33, 157–162.[full text]


Spriet, L. L., Howlett, R. A.  and Heigenhauser, G. J. F.  (2000) An enzymatic approach to lactate production in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 32(4) 756–763,.[full text)

Whipp, B.J. et al (2009) Point:Counterpoint: The kinetics of oxygen uptake during muscular exercise do/do not manifest time-delayed phases J Appl Physiol 107: 1663–1675 [full text]


Review Questions

Subpages (1): Testing Aerobic Capacity
Ben Jane,
Sep 13, 2010, 7:27 AM
Ben Jane,
Sep 13, 2010, 7:30 AM
Ben Jane,
Sep 13, 2010, 7:28 AM