Exercise & Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2002) Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 267. Obstet Gynecol. 99: 171-3 [full text]

American College of Sports Medicine (2014) ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (9th Ed) Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 

Artal, R. and O’Toole, M. (2003) Guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Br J Sports Med 37:6-12 [full text]


Brooks, D. (2004) The complete book of personal training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics [google books]

Campbell, F., Johnson, M., Messina, J., Guillaume, L., & Goyder, E. (2011). Behavioural interventions for weight management in pregnancy: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data. BMC Public Health,11(1), 491.[full text]

Clapp III, J. F. (2003). The effects of maternal exercise on fetal oxygenation and feto-placental growth. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology110, S80-S85.[abstract]

Currie, S., Sinclair, M., Murphy, M. H., Madden, E., Dunwoody, L., & Liddle, D. (2013). Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions. PloS one8(6), e66385.[full text]

Daley, A.J. ,MacArthur, C and Winter, H. (2007)  The Role of Exercise in Treating Postpartum Depression: A Review of the Literature J Midwifery Womens Health 52:56–62 [researchgate]


Davies, G.A.L.,  Wolfe, L.A., Mottola, M.F., and MacKinnon, C. (2003). Joint SOGC/CSEP Clinical Practice Guideline: Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 28(3): 329-341. [full text]


Dempsey, J.C., Sorensen, T.K., Williams, M.A. et al  (2004) Prospective Study of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Relation to Maternal Recreational Physical Activity before and during Pregnancy .Am J. Epidemiol. (2004) 159 (7): 663-670. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwh091 [full text]


DiFiore, J. (2010) The complete guide to postnatal fitness. London: A & C Black [google books]


Earle, R.W. & Baechle, T.R. (2004) NSCA’s Essentials of Personal Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics [google books]

Gaston, A., & Cramp, A. (2011). Exercise during pregnancy: A review of patterns and determinants. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport14(4), 299-305.[full text]

Gjestland, K., Bø, K., Owe, K. M., & Eberhard-Gran, M. (2013). Do pregnant women follow exercise guidelines? Prevalence data among 3482 women, and prediction of low-back pain, pelvic girdle pain and depression. British Journal of Sports Medicine47(8), 515-520.[abstract]

Kardel, K.M. (2005) Effects of intense training during and after pregnancy in top-level athletes Scand J Med Sci Sports 15: 79–86 [full text]


Kasawara, K. T., Nascimento, S. L., Costa, M. L., Surita, F. G., Silva, E., & Pinto, J. L. (2012). Exercise and physical activity in the prevention of pre‐eclampsia: systematic review. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica91(10), 1147-1157.[researchgate]

Mørkved, S., & Bø, K. (2014). Effect of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy and after childbirth on prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine48(4), 299-310.[abstract]

Melzer, K., Schutz, Y., Boulvain, M. and Kayser, B. (2010) Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Cardiovascular Adaptations, Recommendations and Pregnancy Outcomes Sports Med Vol.40, No.6, 493-507 [full text]


Nascimento, S. L., Surita, F. G., & Cecatti, J. G. (2012). Physical exercise during pregnancy: a systematic review. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology24(6), 387-394.[researchgate]

Oteng-Ntim, E., Varma, R., Croker, H., Poston, L., & Doyle, P. (2012). Lifestyle interventions for overweight and obese pregnant women to improve pregnancy outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC medicine10(1), 47.[full text]

Poudevigne, M.S. and O’Connor, P.J. (2006) A Review of Physical Activity Patterns in Pregnant Women and Their Relationship to Psychological Health Sports Med 36 (1): 19-38 [full text]


Prather, H., & Hunt, D. (2005) Issues Unique to the Female Runner Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 16 691–709 [full text]


Salvesen, K. Å., Hem, E., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2012). Fetal wellbeing may be compromised during strenuous exercise among pregnant elite athletes.British journal of sports medicine46(4), 279-283.[abstract]

Stengel, M. R., Kraschnewski, J. L., Hwang, S. W., Kjerulff, K. H., & Chuang, C. H. (2012). “What my doctor didn't tell me”: examining health care provider advice to overweight and obese pregnant women on gestational weight gain and physical activity. Women's Health Issues22(6), e535-e540.[researchgate]

Weissgerber, T. L., Wolfe, L. A., Davies, G. A., & Mottola, M. F. (2006). Exercise in the prevention and treatment of maternal-fetal disease: a review of the literature. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism31(6), 661-674.[full text]

Williamson, P. (2011) Exercise for Special Populations Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins [google books]

Yin, Y. N., Li, X. L., Tao, T. J., Luo, B. R., & Liao, S. J. (2014). Physical activity during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British journal of sports medicine48(4), 290-295.[abstract]

Zavorsky, G. S., & Longo, L. D. (2011). Exercise guidelines in pregnancy.Sports Medicine41(5), 345-360.[researchgate]

Zavorsky, G. S., & Longo, L. D. (2011). Adding strength training, exercise intensity, and caloric expenditure to exercise guidelines in pregnancy.Obstetrics & Gynecology117(6), 1399-1402.[full text]


Further Resources

PARmed-X for pregnancy - Pre-activity screening form and advice from CSEP